Philip III's reign was marked by significant economic problems across Spain. ;] >Stolen March 2014 > Espagne Escudo de Philippe III 1607 Segovie Espagne Escudo de Philippe III 1607 Segovie (ref. Fils aîné de Philippe III, comte d'Évreux, mort en 1343, et de Jeanne de France, morte en 1349, reine de Navarre sous le nom de Jeanne II à la mort de Charles IV le Bel. [31] The challenges to government communication during the period encouraged aspects of this, but the phenomenon was much more marked under Philip III than under either the reign of his father or son. Charles passed away on month day 1632, at age 25. Financially, Philip's situation did not appear much better. [45] The Moriscos were the descendants of those Muslims that had converted to Christianity during the Reconquista of the previous centuries; despite their conversion, they retained a distinctive culture, including many Islamic practices. Similarly Mariana de San Jose, a favoured nun of Queen Margaret's, was also criticised for her later influence over the King's actions. Maestre de campo and corregidor of Concepción Santiago de Tesillo claimed the Defensive War gave the Mapuche a much needed respite to replenish their forces that should have been denied. [64] His instructions to Lerma to wage a war of 'blood and iron' on his rebellious subjects in the Netherlands reflects this. This page was last edited on 17 December 2020, at 22:28. [83] Unlike Philip IV, whose reputation has improved significantly in the light of recent analysis, Philip III's reign has been relatively unstudied, possibly because of the negative interpretation given to the role of Philip and Lerma during the period. Philippe IV (ou Felipe IV en espagnol), né à Valladolid le 8 avril 1605 et décédé à Madrid le 17 septembre 1665, dit le Grand ou le « roi-Planète », est roi des Espagnes et des Indes après la mort de son père Philippe III d'Espagne, du 31 mars 1621 à sa mort [Note 1].Il porta également les titres de roi des Deux-Siciles, roi de Portugal [Note 2] et souverain des Pays-Bas [Note 3]. The Duke of Osuna, who had married into the Sandovel family as a close ally of Lerma, again showed significant independence as the Viceroy of Naples towards the end of Philip's reign. Philippe III (roi d'Espagne) Usage on Filipe III de España; Usage on פליפה השלישי, מלך ספרד; Usage on III. [56] By the financial crisis of 1607, the cortes had even insisted that it be recalled every three years, and that Philip take an oath – on pain of excommunication – to promise that he had spent the royal funds in line with the promises made previously to the cortes. [15] Philip II had taken the traditional system of councils and applied a high degree of personal scrutiny to them, especially in matters of paperwork, which he declined to delegate – the result was a 'ponderous' process. [20] Lastly, Philip's own personality and his friendship with Lerma heavily shaped his approach to policy-making. [23] The degree to which Lerma himself played an active role in government has been disputed. For many, the decline of Spain can be dated to the economic difficulties that set in during the early years of his reign. [6] Nonetheless, Philip does not appear to have been naive – his correspondence to his daughters shows a distinctive cautious streak in his advice on dealing with court intrigue.[7]. Account; Cart Philip intervened in the problematic decision of what to do with Morisco children – should they be allowed to take them to Islamic countries, where they would be brought up as Muslims – and if they were to remain in Spain, what should be done with them? In the Americas Philip inherited a difficult situation in Chile, where the Arauco War raged and the local Mapuche succeeded in razing seven Spanish cities (1598–1604). Anne married Philippe II D'ESPAGNE on month day 1570, at age 21 at marriage place. L'impératrice Marie et le prince Philippe qui deviendra Philippe III d'Espagne. De Lerma's role as royal favourite at court was further complicated by the rise of various 'proconsuls' under Philip III's reign – significant Spanish representatives overseas, who came to exercise independent judgement and even independent policies in the absence of strong leadership from the centre. The result was a radical shift in the role of the crown in government from the model of Philip II. [Museo Nacional de Escultura (Valladolid, Spain); Spain. Philippe II, né le 21 mai 1527 à Valladolid et mort le 13 septembre 1598 au palais de l'Escurial, fils aîné de Charles Quint et d'Isabelle de Portugal, est roi d'Espagne, de Naples et de Sicile, archiduc d'Autriche, duc de Milan et prince souverain des Pays-Bas de l'abdication de son père en 1555 à sa mort. Il était beaucoup plus fondé que le roi d'Angleterre à revendiquer l'héritage des Capétiens directs. Get this from a library! By now in poor health himself, King Philip II was becoming increasingly concerned over the prince's future, and he attempted to establish de Moura as a future, trusted advisor to his son, reinforcing de Loaysa's position by appointing him archbishop. Philippe II instaure un système bureaucratique complexe, célèbre par sa lenteur, qui lui vaut les surnoms de rey Papelero et de rey Prudente.. La répression des morisques. The novel idea of a valido exercising power went against the long-standing popular conception that the king should exercise his powers personally, not through another. Like many Habsburgs, Philip III was the product of extensive inbreeding. Charles III est 22 fois l’ascendant de Philippe VI. Vérifiez les traductions 'Philippe III d’Espagne' en espagnol. [69] Finally, by the Oñate treaty of 29 July 1617, Ferdinand made a successful appeal to Philip's self-interest by promising Spain the Habsburg lands in Alsace in return for Spanish support for his election.[70]. [39] Osuna fell from power only when de Lerma had lost his royal favour, and Osuna's negative impact on Philip's plans for intervention in Germany had become intolerable.[39]. Pour prévenir le soulèvement des Maures convertis, Philippe III les chasse tous de ses États en 1609. As the son of a ruling king, the infant Philippe held the rank of a Fils de France (son of France). Il est le quatrième enfant du roi Philippe II et de sa quatrième épouse et nièce Anne d'Autriche, fille de l'empereur Maximilien II et de Marie d'Autriche, infante d'Espagne. Lynch, John. De la obra Les Delices de l'Espagne de Juan Alvarez de Colmenar. [32] As a result, Philip's foreign policy in the Netherlands would be exercised through the strong-willed Archdukes, but in the knowledge that ultimately the Spanish Netherlands would return to him as king. The Palatinate was a vital, Protestant set of territories along the Rhine guarding the most obvious route for reinforcements from other Spanish territories to arrive into the rebellious Dutch provinces (through Genoa). [4] En réalité, le roi est malade depuis des années et cet épisode ne lui est fatal que parce que son état de santé laissait déjà largement à désirer depuis des années. One of Philip's first domestic changes was the issuing of a decree in 1609 for the expulsion of the Moriscos from Spain, timed to coincide with the declaration of a truce in the war for the Netherlands. Get this from a library! Philippe III de Habsbourg, né le 14 avril 1578 à Madrid, ville où il est mort le 31 mars 1621, est un roi d'Espagne et de Portugal qui a régné de 1598 à 1621.. Règne [modifier | modifier le wikicode]. Philippe III d'Espagne (14 avril 1578 à Madrid, 31 mars 1621 à Madrid) fut roi d'Espagne, roi de Portugal et d'Algarves (Philippe II de Portugal) de 1598 à sa mort. Contacter . He had inherited huge debts from his father, Philip II, and an unhelpful tradition that the kingdom of Castile bore the brunt of royal taxation – Castile carried 65% of total imperial costs by 1616. They had the following children: Generations are numbered by male-line descent from the first archdukes. Les validos se succèdent au détriment du royaume et du crédit du roi. C'est d'ailleurs sous le règne de Philippe III que la pratique du favori qui gouverne à la place du souverain est inaugurée. Philippe V d’Anjou, premier roi Bourbon d’Espagne est 31 fois l’ascendant du sixième roi Philippe. C'est également sous Philippe III qu'éclate la guerre de Trente Ans (1618-1648), dans laquelle il prend parti pour sa maison, la maison d'Autriche, et qu'ont lieu la conjuration de Venise (1618), ainsi que l'occupation par les troupes espagnoles de la Valteline (1620)[3]. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Throughout Philip's reign, a body of analysis of Spain's condition began to emerge through the work of the numerous arbitristas, or commentators, that dominated public discussions from around 1600 through to the 1630s. Philippe VI Pour les articles homonymes, voir Philippe VI et Philippe de Bourbon . [Leopold von Ranke] CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of December 2020 (. Given that Isabella was notoriously childless, it was clear that this was only intended to be a temporary measure, and that Philip II had envisaged an early revision to Philip III. Il porta également les titres … Fils de Philippe II et de sa nièce Anne d'Autriche, il est roi d'Espagne, de Naples, de Sicile et de Portugal (« Philippe II ») de 1598 à sa mort. [63] Under the incoming administration, including the reformist Baltasar de Zúñiga, this committee ground on, but would only deliver substantial, if ill-fated results, when rejuvenated under Philip IV's reign. Philippe III est un jeune homme pâle, effacé, apathique, flegmatique et dévot. Español: Felipe III de España, llamado «el Piadoso» (Madrid, 14 de abril de 1578-ibídem, 31 de marzo de 1621), fue rey de España y de Portugal desde el 13 de septiembre de 1598 hasta su muerte. With the death of Henry IV of France – a supporter of the war against Spain – a period of instability commenced in the Kingdom of France. In particular, Feros (2006) and Williams' (2006) recent extensive studies of the period, and Sánchez's (1996) analysis of the role of powerful women, often under-reported in historical documents, at Philip's court. Philip III turned to peace negotiations instead; with the accession to the throne of James I of England it became possible to terminate both the war and English support to the Dutch, with the signature in 1604 of the Treaty of London.[66]. [55] By 1618, almost all Philip's incoming crown income was already assigned to its various creditors and he had almost no spending discretion left. La faiblesse du royaume d’Espagne tient d'abord à la personnalité du roi, qui laisse son favori gouverner. Marguerite de Styrie avait donné à Philippe III huit enfants, dont Anne d'Autriche et Philippe … Le valido étudie les affaires et propose des solutions, le roi y adhère en général sans plus d'examen ; la signature du valido a la même valeur que celle du roi. Les solutions pour MINISTRE DU ROI D'ESPAGNE PHILIPPE III de mots fléchés et mots croisés. Financially, the royal treasury stood to gain by seizing the assets of the removed peoples, whilst in due course those close to the crown would benefit from cheap land or gifts of estates. He was also, as Philip II, King of Portugal, Naples, Sicily and Sardinia and Duke of Milan from 1598 until his death in 1621. L'espagne Sous Charles-quint, Philippe Ii Et Philippe Iii: Ou Les Osmanlis Et La Monarchie Espagnole Pendant Les Xvie Et Xviie Siècles... (French Edition) [Ranke, Leopold von, Haiber] on His father, Philip II, a product of marriage between first cousins, married his niece, Anna of Austria, herself the product of a cousin couple. En 1610, l'assassinat du roi Henri IV de France permet l’avènement du jeune Louis XIII, alors âgé de neuf ans. All the business of government, Philip instructed, was to arrive in writing and be channeled through Lerma before reaching him. Après avoir reçu en 1553 le royaume de Naples et le duché de Milan, puis, deux ans plus tard, les Pays-Bas, Philippe II, à la suite de l'abdication de son père, est couronné le 28 mars 1556 à Valladolid ; il hérite de toutes les possessions espagnoles d'Europe et du Nouveau Monde. Philippe II aurait déclaré que Dieu ne lui avait pas donné un fils capable de régir ses vastes domaines. L'Espagne s'enfonce dans une crise économique due à l'épuisement des métaux précieux en provenance d'Amérique et des guerres coûteuses. [71] The Spanish troops headed by Spinola in the Palatinate and by Johann Tserclaes, Count of Tilly in Bohemia achieved a decisive victory against the Czechs in the Battle of White Mountain in 1620. [9] They were successful, for example, in convincing Philip to provide financial support to Ferdinand from 1600 onwards. English: Philip IV (April 8, 1605 in Valladolid - September 17, 1665 in Madrid) was king of Spain, and king of Portugal as Philip III. [55] Philip did not openly challenge this situation, but instead depended more and more heavily on the Castilian cortes; in turn, the cortes increasingly began to tie new grants of money to specific projects, subtly but steadily altering the relationship between the king and cortes. [16] To his contemporaries, the degree of personal oversight he exercised was excessive; his 'self-imposed role as the chief clerk to the Spanish empire'[17] was not thought entirely appropriate. On the peninsula itself, Philip II had successfully acquired Portugal in 1580; across Europe, despite the ongoing Dutch revolt, Spanish possessions in Italy and along the Spanish Road appeared secure; globally, the combination of Castilian and Portuguese colonial territories gave a Spanish ruler unparalleled reach from the Americas to the Philippines and beyond through India to Africa. Felipe VI Le roi Felipe VI en mai 2019. Il succède à son père, dont il est le seul fils survivant, en 1598 [28] Before long, the apparatus of the Spanish government was packed with Lerma's relatives, Lerma's servants and Lerma's political friends, to the exclusion of others. Sánchez, Magdalena S. and Alain Saint-Saëns (eds). Espagne Philippe III (1598-1621) Espagne Monnaies en or du Trésor de Boucq (fin XVI°-XVII°) 2 Escudos (atelier de Séville, date illisible) TB+ double frappe. [78] By the time Defensive War was established war between Spanish and Mapuche had been going on for 70 years. Philip first started to become engaged in practical government at the age of 15, when he joined Philip II's private committee.[5]. Spain and Austria's common Habsburg ancestry influenced Spain's involvement in the convoluted politics of the Empire: on the one hand, Philip had a vested interest in the success of his cousin Ferdinand of Bohemia, who intended to follow Matthias to the throne; on the other, Philip had hopes of appointing one of his own family, such as Prince Philip, to the Imperial throne[67] and worried that a failed bid by Ferdinand might reduce collective Habsburg prestige. Philippe III (ou Felipe III en espagnol) est un prince espagnol de la maison de Habsbourg né le 14 avril 1578 à Madrid et mort le 31 mars 1621 dans la même ville. Philip III and the Pax Hispanica, 1598-1621 : the failure of grand strategy. Philippe II, né le 21 mai 1527 à Valladolid et mort le 13 septembre 1598 au palais de l'Escurial, fils aîné de Charles Quint et d'Isabelle de Portugal, est roi d'Espagne, de Naples et de Sicile, archiduc d'Autriche, duc de Milan et prince [N 1] souverain des Pays-Bas de l'abdication de son père en 1555 à sa mort. Lerma departed for his ducal seat, and for six weeks Philip did nothing; then, in October, Philip signed a decree renouncing the powers of his former valido, and announcing that he would rule in person. 900,00 € voir article. Español. The Count of Fuentes, as governor of Lombardy, exploited the lack of guidance from Madrid to pursue his own highly interventionist policy across north Italy, including making independent offers to support the Papacy by invading the Venetian Republic in 1607. Delivery: 7 - 10 days. S et D à gauche du blason. [55] The costs of the Dutch campaign resulted in Philip's bankruptcy in 1607, and the crown's attempt to resolve this by converting the asiento tax system – high interest loans owed to tax farmers – into longer term juros bonds paying a much lower interest, produced a short-term benefit, but at the price of losing financial flexibility during future crises. Le duc d'Uceda, fils du duc de Lerma, succède à son père et est le favori du roi de 1618 à 1621. Minor concessions of the Dutch Republic were the scrapping of the plan to create a Dutch West India Company and to stop the harassment of the Portuguese in Asia. Charles D AUTRICHE was born in 1607, at birth place, to Philippe III D ESPAGNE and Marguerite D ESPAGNE (born D AUTRICHE STYRIE). [47] In the final years of his rule, Philip's father had reinvigorated efforts to convert and assimilate the Moriscos, but with almost 200,000 in the south of Spain alone, it was clear by the early years of the new century that this policy was failing. En tant que roi d'Espagne, il est à la tête des possessions espagnoles extra-européennes, principalement en Amérique, qui lui assurent des ressources considérables. [8] The prince received a new, conservative Dominican confessor. [Burgos, 5 novembre 1615.] Il est le fils du roi Philippe II d'Espagne (1527-1598) et de sa quatrième épouse Anne d'Autriche (1549-1580). Fils de Philippe II et de sa nièce Anne d'Autriche , il est roi d'Espagne , de Naples , de Sicile et de Portugal (« Philippe II ») de 1598 à sa mort. Philippe III (roi d'Espagne) Philippe III (ou Felipe III en espagnol) est un prince espagnol de la maison de Habsbourg né le à Madrid et mort le à Madrid. Philip, whilst unwilling to move further against Lerma, took politically symbolic action against Lerma's former secretary Rodrigo Calderón, a figure emblematic of the former administration. On his accession, Philip inherited two major conflicts from his father. CGB CONTINUES TO HANDLE YOUR DELIVERIES! After Philip III's older brother Don Carlos died insane, Philip II had concluded that one of the causes of Carlos' condition had been the influence of the warring factions at the Spanish court. Philip III's approach to government appears to have stemmed from three main drivers. Il n'a ni énergie ni capacités pour gouverner. Delivery: 9 - 12 days. Philip's own foreign policy can be divided into three phases. Espagne - spanien -Spain: Cobre 1598-1621 Philippe III F+: 30.29 US$ + 11.75 US$ shipping. [73][74] This decree was abused when Spanish settlers in Chiloé Archipelago used it to justify slave raids against groups such as the Chono of northwestern Patagonia who had never been under Spanish rule and never rebelled. Le serviteur préposé à la cheminée étant absent, personne n'éteint le feu. In the Netherlands, his father Philip II had bequeathed his remaining territories in the Low Countries to his daughter Isabella of Spain and her husband, Archduke Albert, under the condition that if she died without heirs, the province would return to the Spanish Crown. De 1989 à nos jours, de nombreuses pièces de monnaie en métaux précieux ont été frappées pour les collectionneurs. Lerma fell to an alliance of interests – Uceda, his son, led the attack, aiming to protect his future interests, allied with Don Baltasar de Zúñiga, a well-connected noble with a background in diplomacy across Europe, whose nephew, Olivares was close to the heir to the throne, Prince Philip. E-shops. À la suite de la banqueroute de l’Espagne en 1607, Philippe III fait abolir la dette publique et doit recourir à une nouvelle cessation de paiement à ses banquiers. [24] All members of royal councils were under orders to maintain complete transparency with Lerma as the king's personal representative;[24] indeed, in 1612 the councils were ordered by Philip to obey Lerma as if he were the king. [53] Whilst the failing harvests affected the rural areas most, the plagues reduced the urban population most significantly, in turn reducing the demand for manufactured goods and undermining the economy further. Discover the family tree of Philippe III d'ESPAGNE for free, and learn about their family history and their ancestry. Compromis dans différentes affaires, le duc de Lerma est renvoyé en 1618 et remplacé par son fils, le duc d'Uceda, mais celui-ci n'a pas le temps de réformer l'État car le roi meurt dès 1621. The most significant of these were the Councils of State and its subordinate Council for War, that were in turn supported by the seven professional councils for the different regions, and four specialised councils for the Inquisition, the Military Orders, Finance and the Crusade tax. [8] The following year, Philip II died after a painful illness, leaving the Spanish Empire to his son (and grandnephew), King Philip III. Sa devise est Dominus mihi adiutor (« Dieu est mon aide »). [57] Philip's attempts to issue new currency – in particular the issues of the copper vélon coinage in 1603–04, 1617 and 1621 – simply created considerable instability. Wedgwood, p. 55; Stradling, p. 18; Elliott, 1963, pp. He was also, as Philip II, King of Portugal, Naples, Sicily and Sardinia and Duke of Milan from 1598 until his death in 1621. Très rare. Découvrez gratuitement l'arbre généalogique de Philippe III d'Espagne le Pieux pour tout savoir sur ses origines et son histoire familiale. [78], These policies were not without criticism. Apathique et faible de santé, il laissa le duc de Lerme, son ministre, gouverner sous son nom. [10] Margaret continued to fight an ongoing battle with Lerma for influence up until her death in 1611. Italiano. The Twelve Years' Truce with the Dutch followed in 1609, which enabled the Southern Netherlands to recover, but it was a de facto recognition of the independence of the Dutch Republic, and many European powers established diplomatic relations with the Dutch. Philippe was born on 21 September 1640 at the Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye in the town of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, France, the day before his mother Anne’s 39th birthday. The story told in the memoirs of the French ambassador Bassompierre, that he was killed by the heat of a brasero (a pan of hot charcoal), because the proper official to take it away was not at hand, is a humorous exaggeration of the formal etiquette of the court. The Other Slavery: The Uncovered Story of Indian Enslavement in America (pp. [36] In the years leading to the outbreak of war in 1618, Spinola was working to produce a plan to finally defeat the Dutch, involving an intervention in the Rhineland followed by fresh hostilities aiming to cut the Low Countries in two: portrayed at the time as the 'spider in the web' of Catholic politics in the region, Spinola was operating without significant consultation with Philip in Madrid. Mais les problèmes économiques persistent et, en 1618, commence la guerre de Trente Ans. Cast by the Neapolitan silversmith Antonio Perrella, that work was destroyed by the Austrian troops in 1707. Durant son règne, Philippe III crée vingt marquis et vingt-cinq comtes[1]. [42] The challenge for such a ruler was that these territories were in legal reality separate bodies, different entities bound together through the 'supraterritorial' royal institutions of the Spanish crown, utilising Castilian nobility as a ruling caste. Lerma was dispatched to Valencia as a Viceroy in 1595, with the aim of removing Philip from his influence;[6] but after Lerma pleaded poor health, he was allowed to return two years later. In the 1604 Treaty of London, Philip was styled "Philip the Third, by the grace of God, king of Castile, Leon, Aragon and the Two Sicilies, Jerusalem, Portugal, Navarre, Granada, Toledo, Valencia, Galicia, the Majorcas, Seville, Cordoba, Corsica, Murcia, Guinea, Algarve, Gibraltar, the Canary Islands, also of the Eastern and Western Indies, and the islands and terra firma of the Ocean Sea, archduke of Austria, duke of Burgundy and Milan, count of Habsburg, Barcelona, and Biscay, and lord of Molina, etc." [67] Philip had also been increasingly influenced over the years by first Queen Margaret, and later the other, powerful Habsburg women at court, whilst the incoming set of advisors that replaced de Lerma, especially de Zúñiga, also saw Spain's future as part of a strong alliance with a Habsburg Holy Roman Empire. [62] Only in Philip's final years did reform begin to gain momentum; a reform committee, or Junta de Reformación, was established in Lerma's final months in 1618. Philippe III D'ESPAGNE 1578-1621: Auteur de cet arbre : Stephanie KEIRSGIETER . [18] Writers such as Girolamo Frachetta, who became a particular favourite of Philip, had propagated a conservative definition of 'reason of state' which centred on exercising a princely prudence and a strict obedience to the laws and customs of the country that one ruled. [5] Indeed, although Philip was educated in Latin, French, Portuguese and astronomy, and appears to have been a competent linguist,[4] recent historians suspect that much of his tutors' focus on Philip's undeniably pleasant, pious and respectful disposition was to avoid reporting that, languages aside, he was not in fact particularly intelligent or academically gifted. "Philip III, had taken the drastic step of stripping indigenous "rebels" of the customary royal protection against enslavement in 1608, thus making Chile one of the few parts of the empire where slave taking was entirely legal." Ce dernier, victime de ses intrigues (ou de ses détracteurs) est démis et enfermé dans une forteresse. Publisher: Pierre van der Aa, (1715), Leyde, Publication Date: 1715. Isabelle Claire Eugénie d'AUTRICHE (born d'ESPAGNE) was born on month day 1566, at birth place, to Philippe II Roi d'ESPAGNE and Elisabeth Reine d'ESPAGNE (born de FRANCE). Whilst popular at the time, and in keeping with earlier policies, this measure significantly damaged the economies of the Kingdom of Valencia, Aragon, and Murcia. Firstly, he was heavily influenced by the eirenic ideas being circulated in Italian circles in reaction to the new Humanist theories of governance, typified by Machiavelli. Il est le fils du roi Philippe II d'Espagne (1527-1598) et de sa quatrième épouse Anne d'Autriche (1549-1580). À ce titre, elle conclut les mariages de ses enfants avec ceux du roi d'Espagne : en 1615, Louis XIII de France épouse l'infante Ana María, fille aînée du roi d'Espagne (que les Français nomment par la suite Anne d'Autriche) et Élisabeth de France (que les Espagnols nomment de leur côté Isabel de Borbón) épouse le prince des Asturies, futur Philippe IV. Philip III (Spanish: Felipe; 14 April 1578 – 31 March 1621) was King of Spain. and his fourth wife, Anne, daughter of the emperor Maximilian II., was born at Madrid on the 14th of April 1578. Espagne Philippe III (1598-1621) 2 escudos or - 1612 S D Séville. Wikidata: Q29 Lire la suite. La mort du roi révèle l'imbroglio du cérémonial de la cour espagnole. consort to an Infanta naturalized as a Spanish Infante, "Habsburg, Elisabeth (eigentlich Isabella von Oesterreich)", Biographisches Lexikon des Kaiserthums Oesterreich, "Habsburg, Anna von Oesterreich (1528–1587)", "Habsburg, Anna von Oesterreich (Königin von Spanien)", "Habsburg, Margaretha (Königin von Spanien)", Revista Complutense de Historia de América, "Chile como un "Flandes indiano" en las crónicas de los siglos VI y VII", Independence of Spanish continental Americas, Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, northernmost France, Law of coartación (which allowed slaves to buy their freedom, and that of others), Infante Pedro Carlos, Infante of Portugal, Infante Alfonso Carlos, Duke of San Jaime, Infanta Isabel, Holy Roman Empress and Queen of Spain, Miguel da Paz, Prince of Portugal and Asturias, Baltasar Carlos, Prince of Portugal and Asturias, Maximilian Franz, Archbishop-Elector of Cologne,, People of the Anglo-Spanish War (1585–1604), Burials in the Pantheon of Kings at El Escorial, Grand Masters of the Order of the Golden Fleece, Articles with Encyclopædia Britannica links, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Articles incorporating a citation from the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia with Wikisource reference, CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of December 2020, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Spanish-language text, Wikipedia articles incorporating text from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with RKDartists identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Maria (1 February 1603 – 2 February 1603), Margaret Frances (24 May 1610 – 11 March 1617), Alphonse Maurice (22 September 1611 – 16 September 1612), Carter, Charles H. "The Nature of Spanish Government After Philip II.".