Some outsiders infiltrated that group. According to Michel Koutouzis, who does research on security issues for the EU institutions, the UN and the French government, "In Libyan society, there is a taboo against killing people from your own tribal group. On February 15, 2011, anti-government protests began in Libya’s second-largest city, Benghazi, following popular uprisings in neighboring Tunisia and Egypt. The General People's Congress announced that, of 468 Basic People's Congresses, 64 chose immediate implementation while 251 endorsed implementation "but asked for (it) to be delayed until appropriate measures were put in place". The big stories of 2011", "Libyan Opposition Declares 'Day of Rage' Against Gaddafi", "Anti-Government Protesters Killed in Libyan Clash", "Military Helicopters Reportedly Fire on Protesters in Libya", "POPULAR PROTEST IN NORTH AFRICA AND THE MIDDLE EAST (V): MAKING SENSE OF LIBYA. This video is unavailable. [315] On 22 September, the NTC captured the southern city of Sabha, and claimed to have found a large cache of chemical weapons. [377] By 1 March, officials from the UN High Commissioner for Refugees had confirmed allegations of discrimination against sub-Saharan Africans who were held in dangerous conditions in the no-man's-land between Tunisia and Libya. They took Tripoli in August. [381] Islamic leaders and clerics in Libya, notably the Network of Free Ulema – Libya urged all Muslims to rebel against Gaddafi. He stated that the commission was intended to be "for members of Libyan and foreign organizations of human rights" and that it will "investigate the circumstances and events that have caused many victims. [183] The exact same day, the Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting reported that the International Criminal Court estimated 10,000 had been killed. [142], In a statement released after clashes in Benghazi, a Libyan official warned that the Government "will not allow a group of people to move around at night and play with the security of Libya". The government is ready to dialogue with them." In 1975 he published his manifesto The Green Book. Estimates have been widely varied. For the 18th-century civil war in Libya, see, Christopher S. Chivvis, Keith Crane, Peter Mandaville, Jeffrey Martini, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFDavis1990 (. Libye : la guerre de succession 14 juin 2019, 18:36 Huit ans après l’intervention occidentale, la Libye ne s’acclimate pas à la démocratie et s’enfonce dans la guerre civile. Voters Back Obama's Decision To Establish No-Fly Zone in Libya", "Qatar, several EU states up for Libya action: diplomat", "Paris Summit Talks To Launch Military Action in Libya", "Libya: President Obama Gives Gaddafi Ultimatum", "Libya: RAF Jets Join Attack on Air Defence Systems", "Deal Puts NATO at Head of Libyan Operation", "Libya No-Fly Zone Leadership Squabbles Continue Within Nato", "Phoenix:Russia government recognized The NTC of Libya as a legitimate dialogue partner", "Rebels dismiss election offer, NATO pounds Tripoli", "Gaddafi's son: Libya like McDonald's for NATO – fast war as fast food", "Gaddafi's rule crumbling as rebels enter heart of Tripoli", "Libyan rebel forces penetrate Qaddafi's compound", "Rebels Hunt Qaddafi; Journalists in Hotel Are Free", "Libya: Gaddafi son spotted in Bani Walid as heavy fighting continues", "Libyan rebels discover Gaddafi's chemical weapons", "Gaddafi determined to avoid Saddam Hussein's fate", "Ferocious fighting in Sirte as NTC tightens grip – Channel 4 News", "Gaddafi loyalists stranded as battle for Sirte rages", "Sina:Russia government recognized The NTC of Libya as the only Legal regime in Libya", "China denies report, says it did not sell weapons to Libya", "China Sought to Sell Arms to Qaddafi, Documents Suggest", "Libyans say China, Europe sent arms to Gaddafi", "spokeswoman of Chinese Foreign Ministry-Ma Chaoxu said China recognized The NTC of Libya as the only Legal regime in Libya", "Sohu:The Libyan NTC said it will be a very hardship environment to a China, Russia or India oil company to acquired a new exploration contract", "Fresh clashes in Libya's Bani Walid; U.N. says 7,000 held in militia prisons", "Abdul Jalil appoints head of Libyan armed forces, warns of civil war", "Deadly clash of militias in Libyan capital Tripoli", "Will new army chief end the bloodshed in Libya? As a train roars through a wall "[200] Gaddafi's military commanders also reportedly executed soldiers who refused to fire on protesters. [95] More than 16% of families had no members earning a stable income, and 43.3% had just one. [172] NATO's Supreme Allied Commander James G. Stavridis stated that intelligence reports suggested there were "flickers" of al-Qaeda activity among rebels, but that there was insufficient information to confirm a significant presence of terrorist groups. However, some of Gaddafi's soldiers began joining the rebels in protest. [166], The rebels primarily included civilians, such as teachers, students, lawyers, and oil workers, but also defected police officers and professional soldiers. You cannot escape [270], Muhammad as-Senussi, son of the former Crown Prince and grand-nephew of the late King Idris, sent his condolences "for the heroes who have laid down their lives, killed by the brutal forces of Gaddafi" and called on the international community "to halt all support for the dictator with immediate effect. Many Libyans were inspired by the uprisings in neighbouring countries, such as Tunisia and Egypt. [75] These unresolved issues led directly to a second civil war in Libya. [97], Some of the worst economic conditions were in the eastern parts of the state, once a breadbasket of the ancient world, where Gaddafi extracted oil. [64] In early March, Gaddafi's forces rallied, pushed eastwards and re-took several coastal cities before reaching Benghazi. The later British parliament's Foreign Affairs Select Committee inquiry concluded that by summer 2011 British policy had become one of regime change. [255] The Jamahiriya News Agency reported on a speech delivered by Leader Gaddafi to Misrata tribes in Tripoli, in which he said that the rebels "used children and women as human shields. Everybody is terrified because of the armed militia. … Dozens of them were arrested. Fleeing the violence of Tripoli by road, as many as 4,000 refugees were crossing the Libya–Tunisia border daily during the first days of the uprising. Virtually all Western countries cut off diplomatic relations with Gaddafi's government over disputed reports of an aerial bombing campaign in February and March, and a number of other countries led by Peru and Botswana did likewise. One of the most notorious is a prison which was set up in a tobacco factory in Tripoli where inmates are reported to have been fed just half a loaf of bread and a bottle of water a day. The Libya Shield was based out of Mistrata and Zaria. "[271] as-Senussi said that the protesters would be "victorious in the end" and calls for international support to end the violence. They live in terror. Saif al-Arab Gaddafi †[22] The United Nations Security Council passed an initial resolution on 26 February, freezing the assets of Gaddafi and his inner circle and restricting their travel, and referred the matter to the International Criminal Court for investigation. [366] Other news sources including The Independent and CNN have reported on the targeting[clarification needed] of black people in rebel held areas. Mutassim Gaddafi † [189] In multiple incidents, Gaddafi's forces were documented using ambulances in their attacks. [89][90] The Arabian Gulf Oil Company, the second-largest state-owned oil company in Libya, announced plans to use oil funds to support anti-Gaddafi forces. But in Libya, there is something different. He specifically referred to substances in milk, coffee, and Nescafé, and said that Bin Laden and Al-Qaeda were distributing these hallucinogenic drugs. [66][67] Throughout the conflict, rebels rejected government offers of a ceasefire and efforts by the African Union to end the fighting because the plans set forth did not include the removal of Gaddafi. [162] The council began to refer to itself as the Libyan Republic and by March had a website. [114], The Revolutionary Committees occasionally kept tight control over internal dissent; reportedly, 10% to 20% of Libyans worked as informants for these committees, with surveillance taking place in the government, in factories, and in the education sector. Capture de Kadhafi du 15 février jusqu'au 23 octobre 15 février 2011: Octobre 2011 Rebelles Libyens LA MORT DE KADHAFI SURVIENT LE 20 OCTOBRE alors qu’il tentait de prendre la fuite de Syrte par voiture, il est bombardé par l’OTAN. There were small battles until February 24, when Gaddafi sent tanks and troops into Misrata and attacked. Mustafa Jalil[43](Commander-in-Chief) Omar El-Hariri[44] Jalal al-Digheily Khalifa Haftar Abdelhakim Belhaj Abdul Fatah Younis † Suleiman Mahmoud[45] Hamad bin Ali Al Attiyah, 17,000 defected soldiers and volunteers[48][failed verification] [41][74] The local forces were said to have used heavy weapons and numbered 100–150 men. The government also banned giving blood transfusions to people who had taken part in the demonstrations. 9 Nov. The staff of a number of diplomatic missions of Libya have either resigned or condemned the actions of the Gaddafi government. Khamis Gaddafi † [354][355], By the end of February 2011, supplies of medicine, fuel and food were dangerously low in Libya's urban centres. War wounded were estimated as at least 50,000, of which about 20,000 were serious injuries, but this estimate was expected to rise. Gaddafi's ambassador denied the reports. He later stated that international community needs "less talk and more action" to stop the violence. Despite one of the highest unemployment rates in the region, there was a consistent labor shortage with over a million migrant workers present on the market. [365] Despite this, offers continue for the creation of an aid corridor and aid agencies have accepted military logistical support in the past, for instance in the 2010 Pakistan floods response. [142][145] The army withdrew from the city of Bayda. "[252], The Guardian described journalism in Gaddafi's Libya as "North Korea with palm trees". "Clash breaks out as Libya braces for 'day of anger, "Violent Protests Rock Libyan City of Benghazi", "Libya protests: Second city Benghazi hit by violence", "What happened next? Muammar: You have never served the people Financial markets around the world had adverse reactions to the instability, with oil prices rising to a ​ .sr-only{border:0;clip:rect(0,0,0,0);height:1px;margin:-1px;overflow:hidden;padding:0;position:absolute;width:1px;white-space:nowrap} 1⁄2-year high. By ANDREW GLASS. Libya Revolt of 2011, popular uprising in Libya inspired by the Arab Spring revolutions in Egypt and Tunisia. [93] Libya's corruption perception index in 2010 was 2.2, ranking 146th out of 178 countries, worse than that of Egypt (ranked 98th) and Tunisia (ranked 59th). [91][92], Libya's economy is structured primarily around the nation's energy sector, which generates about 95% of export earnings, 80% of GDP, and 99% of government income. For example, in Misrata people organised a pizza service which delivered up to 8,000 pizzas a day to fighters. According to Freedom House, however, these structures were often manipulated to ensure the dominance of Gaddafi, who reportedly continued to dominate all aspects of government. [200], According to Libyan state television, the rebels used human shields in Misrata. [323][324] Chinese Foreign Ministry spokeswoman Jiang Yu has confirmed arms sales talks with Gaddafi forces, but no arms were delivered. Libyan American poet Khaled Mattawa penned "Now That We Have Tasted Hope" in 2011, on the heels of an uprising in Libya that led to the ousting of President Muammar Gaddafi. It estimated that during the first few days of the conflict, 100 to 110 people were killed in Benghazi and 59 to 64 were killed in Bayda. In addition, some loyalist forces crossed into Niger, though the escape attempts exploded into violence when detected by Nigerien troops. The report suggested that Tawergha, which was dominated by black Libyans, may have been the subject of ethnic cleansing provoked by a combination of racism and bitterness on the part of Misratan fighters over the town's support for Gaddafi during the siege of Misrata. At the same time, the opposition said that 6,500 people had died. [61] The war was preceded by protests in Zawiya on 8 August 2009 and finally ignited by protests in Benghazi beginning on Tuesday, 15 February 2011, which led to clashes with security forces that fired on the crowd. [311] Later the same day, rebels blasted open the Bab al-Azizia compound in Tripoli through its north gates and stormed inside. Oil Minister Shukri Ghanem and Foreign Minister Moussa Koussa fled Libya, with the latter defecting to the UK. On the evening of 15 February, between 500 and 600 demonstrators protested in front of Benghazi's police headquarters after the arrest of human rights lawyer Fathi Terbil. Nobel peace prize-winner and US President Obama says unleashing cruise missiles from submarines is … Libyan authorities also argued that no one in the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya suffered from extreme poverty and hunger, and that the government guaranteed a minimum of food and essential needs to people with low incomes. [339], In June 2011, Amnesty International stated that earlier estimates of the initial clashes in February were exaggerated. [185], Saif al-Islam Gaddafi, in an interview with ABC on 17 March, stated that the rebels in Benghazi engaged in terror against the population. "[374], In 2014 a former Gaddafi officer reported to the New York Times that the civil war was now an "ethnic struggle" between Arab tribes (like the Zintanis) against those of Turkish ancestry (like the Misuratis), as well as against the Berbers and Circassians. The report said that the country was founded on direct people's democracy that guaranteed direct exercise of authority by all citizens through the people's congresses. [335] By May 2014, conflicts between several factions in Libya had descended into a second civil war. [176], In the days leading up to the conflict, Gaddafi called for a rally against the government that was to be held on 17 February. Malian government officials told BBC that it is hard to stop the flow of fighters from Mali to Libya. The boy, who had previously been a shepherd in Chad, told that a Libyan man had offered him a job and a free flight to Tripoli, but in the end he had been airlifted to shoot opposition members in Eastern Libya. [293] the Royal Canadian Air Force, French Air Force, United States Air Force, and British Royal Air Force[294] undertaking sorties across Libya and a naval blockade by the Royal Navy. No school. Responding to demands that he step down, he stated that he could not step down, as he held a purely symbolic position like Queen Elizabeth, and that the people were in power. In downtown Benghazi, anti-government forces killed the managing director of al-Galaa hospital. [184], The Swedish peace research institute SIPRI reported flights between Tripoli and a dedicated military base in Belarus which only handles stockpiled weaponry and military equipment. Learn more abut the Libya Revolt of 2011. [70], Efforts to mop up pro-Gaddafi forces in northwestern Libya and toward Sirte began even before the rebels fully consolidated control of Tripoli. [115] The government sometimes executed dissidents through public hangings and mutilations and re-broadcast them on public television channels. [317], By mid-October 2011, much of the city of Sirte had been taken by NTC forces, although fierce fighting continued around the city center, where many pro-Gaddafi fighters were encamped. Adopting resolution 1973 (2011) by a vote of 10 in favour to none against, with 5 abstentions (Brazil, China, ... Libya: United Nations Security Council proposed designations Available only in … [305], In May 2011, when Gaddafi's forces were still fighting, and the end result of the civil war was still uncertain, Putin and Dmitri Medvedev's Russian government recognized the National Transitional Council (NTC) of Libya as a legitimate dialogue partner. [154], Many opposition participants called for a return to the 1952 constitution and a transition to multi-party democracy. The conflict began with series of demonstrations and riots. Those who surrender their weapons and would come without their arms, we would forgive them, and would have amnesty for those who put down their weapons. On 19 March 2011, exactly eight years later to the day, it was the French president’s turn to rain down bombs over Libya, once again claiming it was to bring democracy. [62], The Libyan government alleged that the armed rebellion was composed of "criminal gangs and mercenaries. [293] NATO took control of the arms embargo on 23 March, named Operation Unified Protector. [207][208], In a questionnaire 259 refugee women reported that they had been raped by Gaddafi's soldiers, however the accounts of these women could not be independently verified as the psychologist who conducted the questionnaire said that "she had lost contact with them". [350], Finally, it remains unsettled whether or not the rebels' overthrow of Gaddafi's government following the fall of Tripoli in August 2011 changed the nature of the conflict again. [276], A rival claimant to the throne, Idris bin Abdullah al-Senussi, announced in an interview with Adnkronos that he was ready to return to Libya and "assume leadership" once change had been initiated. Anyone who throws his arms away and stays at home would be protected. There was also the Libyan Islamic Fighting Group[169] and the Obaida Ibn Jarrah Brigade which has been held responsible for the assassination of top rebel commander General Abdul Fatah Younis. [286][287] But in early March, Gaddafi's forces pushed the rebels back and eventually reached Benghazi[288][289] and Misrata. [62] The protests escalated into a rebellion that spread across the country,[63] with the forces opposing Gaddafi establishing an interim governing body, the National Transitional Council. The Economist correspondent in Tripoli noted "The picture presented by the regime often falls apart, fast. 200,000 volunteers by war's end(NTC estimate)[24]. They are killing people, normal workers, mistreating them. [109][110], In 2009 and 2011, the Freedom of the Press Index rated Libya the most-censored state in the Middle East and North Africa. It helped to create moral support and encouraged a spirit of revolt against the governments. Some top government officials opposed the plan, saying that it would "wreak havoc" in the economy by "fanning inflation and spurring capital flight". [254] Amnesty International cited claims that Gaddafi had placed his tanks next to civilian facilities, using them as shields. With Eric Elmosnino, Mathilde Seigner, Fred Testot, Alain Chabat. [130], The protests would lead to an uprising and civil war, as part of the wider Arab Spring,[131][132] which had already resulted in the ousting of long-term presidents of adjacent Tunisia and Egypt. A number of senior military officials defected to the opposition, including General Abdul Fatah Younis, General al-Barani Ashkal,[267] Major General Suleiman Mahmoud, Brigadier General Musa'ed Ghaidan Al Mansouri, Brigadier General Hassan Ibrahim Al Qarawi and Brigadier General Dawood Issa Al Qafsi. [215][216] Jalal al-Dugheily, the NTC Defence Minister, was a Libyan army veteran who reportedly favoured Islamist militia leaders. [249], After the uprising began, Libyan students studying in the United States allegedly received phone calls from the Libyan embassy, instructing them to join pro-Gaddafi rallies, and threatening the loss of their government-funded scholarships if they refused. With Valérie Donzelli, Jérémie Elkaïm, César Desseix, Gabriel Elkaïm. [390], 100 countries recognized the anti-Gaddafi National Transitional Council as Libya's legitimate representative, with many of those countries explicitly describing it as the legal interim government of the country due to the perceived loss of legitimacy on the part of Gaddafi's government, though the National Transitional Council never obtained authority and security across all of Libya. Many Libyans were inspired by the uprisings in neighbouring countries, such as Tunisia and Egypt. Frankrijk en Groot-Brittannië kregen het voortouw bij het militair ingrijpen. [382] The Tuareg and Magarha tribes announced their support of the protesters. He officially stepped down from power in 1977, and subsequently claimed to be merely a "symbolic figurehead" until 2011, with the Libyan government up until then also denying that he held any power. An Al-Jazeera journalist Ali Hassan al-Jaber was murdered, and was apparently deliberately targeted. On 24 February, Libya's ambassador to Malta said that Gaddafi's government believed the number of dead to be about 300, including civilians, police officers, and soldiers. Suleiman Mahmoud[20] Authorizes Member States that have notified the Secretary-General, acting nationally or through regional organizations or arrangements, and acting in cooperation with the Secretary-General, to take all necessary measures, notwithstanding paragraph 9 of resolution 1970 (2011), to protect civilians and civilian populated areas under threat of attack in the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, including Benghazi, while excluding a foreign occ… ", "Arab Spring: timeline of the African and Middle East rebellions", "Libya Protests Build, Showing Revolts' Limits", "Twitter and Other Services Create Cracks in Gadhafi's Media Fortress", "Opening Closed Regimes: What Was the Role of Social Media During the Arab Spring? This lasted until 12 March. [197] The International Federation for Human Rights concluded on 24 February that Gaddafi was implementing a scorched earth strategy. Music has been controlled and dissenting cultural figures have been arrested or tortured in Arab Spring countries, including Libya. No money. [193], In the eastern city of Bayda, anti-government forces hanged two policemen who were involved in trying to disperse demonstrations. [citation needed] On 10 March, the president of the ICRC Jakob Kellenberger warned of the increase in the intensity of fighting and in the number of casualties arriving at hospitals in Ajdabiya and Misrata. Mustafa Abdul Jalil[18] La première guerre civile libyenne, ou révolution libyenne, est un conflit armé issu d'un mouvement de contestation populaire, assorti de revendications sociales et politiques, qui s'est déroulé entre le 15 février 2011 et le 23 octobre 2011 en Libye. [379], To continue responding to the needs of people staying at the Ras Ajdir crossing point in Tunisia, the WFP and Secours Islamique-France were upgrading a kitchen that would provide breakfast for families. Piers Morgan Explores the Man at the Center of Libya's Uprising", "With NATO's Operation Odyssey Dawn Launch, Strategic Dimensions Come into Focus", "Libyan Royal Family Seeking Swedish Asylum", "Benghazi, Cradle of Revolt, Condemns Gaddafi", "Protesters Defy Gaddafi as International Pressure Mounts (1st Lead)", "Middle Eastern Media See End of Gaddafi", "Libya: Gaddafi Forces Attacking Rebel-Held Benghazi", "Libya: urgent to apply the rules of war", "Gaddafi relatives offered Malta Armed Forces bribes – Clinton ally", "Canada turns commitment into clout in Libya", "Libya: U.S. Tomahawk Cruise Missiles Hit Targets in Libya", "Libya: US, UK and France attack Gaddafi forces", "French Fighter Jets Deployed over Libya", "France Uses Unexplosive Bombs in Libya: Spokesman", "Polled N.J. It also adopted Law 37, prohibiting the publication of "propaganda" criticising the revolution, questioning the authority of Libya's governing organs, or praising Muammar Gaddafi, his family, his government, or the ideas of the Green Book.[334]. In fact, most shipments for which Qatar paid went directly to the rebels. [97] For example, the only sewage facility in Benghazi was over 40 years old, and untreated sewage has resulted in environmental problems. From 1969 until 1975 standards of living, life expectancy and literacy grew rapidly. [94] One paper speculated that such a situation created a broader contrast between good education, high demand for democracy, and the government's practices (perceived corruption, political system, supply of democracy). [120], The Green Book, which Gaddafi authored in the 1970s, was for years the principal text of political education. ", "Mali fears as Tuaregs return from Libya", "Gadhafi Using Foreign Children As Mercenaries In Libya", "African Mercenaries in Libya Nervously Await Their Fate", "Libya: Gaddafi and His Mali-Chad Tuareg Mercenaries", "В Ливии на стороне правительства воюет немало зимбабвийцев", На стороне Каддафи воюют белорусские партизаны, Источник: освобожденный из плена в Ливии белорусский военный прибыл в Минск,, "Sudan: Govt Deploys Troops to Borders With Libya", "Algeria May have Violated UN Resolution By Providing Weapons to Libya, US State Dept",,,,,,,,,,,,,, "UPDATE 1-Anger, chaos but no revolt after Libya violence", "The rise of the 'Madkhalists': Inside Libya's struggle for religious supremacy", "Libya's Opposition Leadership Comes into Focus", "Nato strike 'kills Gaddafi's youngest son, "Feature Report – Long summer of civil war in Libya", "Jordan begins Libya police training programme", "Gadhafi Asks Obama To Call Off NATO Military Campaign", "Libya: How the Opposing Sides Are Armed", "Prisoners in Libya languish without charge", "Libyan revolution casualties lower than expected, says new government", "Libyan estimate: At least 30,000 died in the war", "Libyan Rebels Accused of Arbitrary Arrests, Torture", "Libyan Rebels Pledge Free and Fair Election", "A Visual Look Back at the Libyan Revolution", "Opinion: On the second anniversary of the 17th February 2011 Revolution – reflections and considerations", "Amnesty questions claim that Gaddafi ordered rape as weapon of war", "Security Council Calls for War Crimes Inquiry in Libya", "Security Council Authorizes 'All Necessary Measures' To Protect Civilians in Libya", "Gadhafi Blasts 'Crusader' Aggression After Strikes", "Libya accuses rebels of breaching truce", "Libyan rebels reject African Union road map – Africa", "Street fighting rages in Tripoli as Gaddafi loyalists fight rearguard action", "Gaddafi killed as Libya's revolt claims hometown", "Former Gaddafi stronghold revolts against Tripoli", "Qaddafi Is No Mubarak as Regime Overthrow May Trigger a 'Descent to Chaos, "Libyan minister claims Gaddafi is powerless and the ceasefire is 'solid, "Gaddafi Is Eccentric But the Firm Master of His Regime, Wikileaks Cables Say", "What Did Qaddafi's Green Book Really Say?