I cannot forget these terrible details. [19], Early in 1945, the German offensive known as the Battle of the Bulge had been exhausted, as was the Luftwaffe's disastrous New Year's Day attack involving elements of 11 combat wings of its day fighter force. Attacks there, where main railway junctions, telephone systems, city administration and utilities were, would result in "chaos." Four major raids were carried out in the span of 10 days, of which the most notable, on 27–28 July, created a devastating firestorm effect similar to Dresden's, killing at least 45,000 people. Find betydning, stavning, synonymer og meget mere i moderne dansk. It is now none of these things.[112]. ", "Bomber-Harris Superstar – Thanks from the red Antifa", and "Deutsche Täter sind keine Opfer!" An RAF memo issued to airmen on the night of the attack gave some reasoning for the raid: Dresden, the seventh largest city in Germany and not much smaller than Manchester is also the largest unbombed builtup area the enemy has got. The next set of aircraft to leave England were twin-engined Mosquito marker planes, which would identify target areas and drop 1,000-pound (450 kg) target indicators (TIs)"[50] that created a red glow for the bombers to aim at. Dresde 1945: 3760207260085: Books - Amazon.ca. c) un document de 101 pages (Helmut Schnatz) sur les attaques de civils à la mitrailleuse depuis des avions à basse altitude, attaques dont la réalité est alléguée et non prouvée, aucune découverte archéologique de balles de calibre 50 -12,7mm- près de l'Elbe, par exemple, n'ayant été faite. The raid achieved the military objective, without excessive loss of civilian life. The second was on 17 April, when 580 B-17s dropped 1,554 tons of high-explosive bombs and 165 tons of incendiaries. 8 personnes ont trouvé cela utile. As a centre of military and munitions production, Coventry suffered some of the worst attacks on any British city at the hands of the Luftwaffe during the Coventry Blitzes of 1940 and 1941, which killed over 1,200 civilians and destroyed its cathedral.[119]. Je prends le train en cours, avant tte chose, bonjour à tt le monde. [103], One of the journalists asked whether the principal aim of bombing Dresden would be to cause confusion among the refugees or to blast communications carrying military supplies. [124] The society is committed to reconstructing the historic city centre as much as possible. [28], In response to Churchill's inquiry, Sinclair approached Bottomley, who asked Harris to undertake attacks on Berlin, Dresden, Leipzig, and Chemnitz as soon as moonlight and weather permitted, "with the particular object of exploiting the confused conditions which are likely to exist in the above mentioned cities during the successful Russian advance". During the Second World War, Britain was on summer time and. A British charity, the Dresden Trust, was formed in 1993 to raise funds in response to the call for help, raising £600,000 from 2,000 people and 100 companies and trusts in Britain. Quoi qu'il en soit Winston Churchill s'est inquiété de l'opportunité du bombardement quelques semaines après, le 28 mars 1945[37], dans un memorandum adressé à l'état major britannique : « Il me semble que le moment est venu de remettre en question le bombardement des villes allemandes dans le but d'accroître la terreur, tout en invoquant d'autres prétextes… la destruction de Dresde constitue un sérieux doute sur la conduite des bombardements alliés »[38]. Sixty bombed Prague, dropping 153 tons of bombs, while others bombed Brux and Pilsen. "But there were too many corpses to bury. Marshall's tribunal declared that no extraordinary decision was made to single out Dresden (e.g. Although the city had been sealed off by the Wehrmacht to prevent looting, Rudolph was granted a special permit to enter and carry out his work, as he would be during the Russian occupation as well. When plans for the rebuilding of Dresden's Frauenkirche became certain, the (GHND) began calls for the reconstruction of the historic buildings that surrounded it. So instead the Nazis sent in troops with flamethrowers. Hvorfor vi bruger cookies? Altid hurtig levering, 100 dages returret & prisgaranti! [35] The bombing of Dresden was a Western plan, but the Soviets were told in advance about the operation. 09-mar-2013 - Explora el tablero de Emilio Rassiner "La destrucción de Dresde" en Pinterest. Le bombardement de Dresde pourrait légitimement reprocher aux Alliés comme crime de guerre. The other groups all bombed Dresden between 12:00 and 12:10. The Allies were aware of the effects of firebombing, as British cities had been subject to them during the Blitz. nécessaire]. ... How much guilt does this parasite not bear for all this, which we owe to his indolence and love of his own comforts. archive DRESDE OU LA MÉMOIRE BLESSÉE En deux jours, les 14 et 15 février 1945, RAF et Américains ont lâché 800 000 bombes sur la capitale saxonne. Proponents of this position argue that the devastation from firebombing was greater than anything that could be justified by military necessity alone, and this establishes a prima facie case. 5 Group, acting as the Pathfinders, or flare force, whose job it was to find Dresden and drop magnesium parachute flares, known to the Germans as "Christmas trees", to light up the area for the bombers. [70] In 2000, historian Helmut Schnatz found an explicit order to RAF pilots not to strafe civilians on the way back from Dresden. Dresde 1945 on Amazon.com. Les services de renseignements occidentaux étaient arrivés à la conclusion que la Wehrmacht allait déplacer 42 divisions (un demi-million d'hommes) vers le front de l'Est, alors proche de la ville, et les services soviétiques avaient signalé d'importants mouvements de trains sur le centre de triage de Dresde (en fait, des trains de réfugiés fuyant l'avance de l'Armée rouge qui effectuait l'offensive Vistule-Oder). [60] The Pathfinders therefore decided to expand the target, dropping flares on either side of the firestorm, including the Hauptbahnhof, the main train station, and the Großer Garten, a large park, both of which had escaped damage during the first raid. The 303rd group arrived over Dresden two minutes after the 379th and found their view obscured by clouds, so they bombed Dresden using H2X radar. [55], The sirens started sounding in Dresden at 21:51 (CET). [84], An RAF assessment showed that 23% of the industrial buildings and 56% of the non-industrial buildings, not counting residential buildings, had been seriously damaged. Dresde 1945 Vonnegut recalled "utter destruction" and "carnage unfathomable." nécessaire]. Despite repeated diplomatic attempts to update international humanitarian law to include aerial warfare, it was not updated before the outbreak of World War II. [13] Der Spiegel writes that, for decades, the Communist government of East Germany promoted the bombing as an example of "Anglo-American terror," and now the same rhetoric is being used by the far right. The first group to arrive over the target was the 401st, but it missed the city centre and bombed Dresden's southeastern suburbs, with bombs also landing on the nearby towns of Meissen and Pirna. Other than deciding on what German territory would be conquered by which power, little time was given to military considerations in the war ag… "[23] He mentioned that aircraft diverted to such raids should not be taken away from the current primary tasks of destroying oil production facilities, jet aircraft factories, and submarine yards. At 22:00 hours, the force heading for Böhlen split away from Plate Rack, which turned south east toward the Elbe. The death toll of 135,000 given by Vonnegut was taken from The Destruction of Dresden, a 1963 book by David Irving. D'autres bombardements sur l'Allemagne (Berlin et Hambourg lors de l'opération Gomorrhe) furent aussi très meurtriers, mais celui de Dresde a plus profondément choqué les esprits, peut-être parce que la ville était davantage perçue comme une ville d'arts et de culture et qu'elle avait un intérêt stratégique moins important (ne pouvant justifier une attaque aussi lourde), d'autant plus que l'Albertstadt, le fort militaire de Dresde, n'a pas été bombardé. À l'époque déjà, le ministère de la Propagande de Joseph Goebbels avait utilisé le bombardement de Dresde pour relativiser la responsabilité de l'Allemagne dans la guerre et placer les Allemands dans un rôle de victimes. are popular slogans among the so-called "Anti-Germans"—a small radical left-wing political movement in Germany and Austria. [125], In 2003, a petition in support of reconstructing the Neumarkt area was signed by nearly 68,000 people, amounting to 15% of the entire electorate. At 22:03 the Local Air Raid Leadership issued the first definitive warning: "Warning! The raids became a symbol of the “terror bombing” campaign against Germany, which was one of the most controversial Allied actions of the war. Frauenkirche: Exceptionnel - consultez 6 540 avis de voyageurs, 3 948 photos, les meilleures offres et comparez les prix pour Dresde, Allemagne sur Tripadvisor. Le bombardement de Dresde eut lieu du 13 au 15 février 1945, selon les principes de la directive du ministère de l'Aviation du gouvernement britannique sur le bombardement de zone du 14 février 1942, devenue avec l'USAAF la directive de Casablanca (en) en 1943. [7], On 13 February 1945, bad weather over Europe prevented any USAAF operations, and it was left to RAF Bomber Command to carry out the first raid. Why did we burn its people? Phrases like "Bomber-Harris, do it again! Harris quotes as his source the Public Records Office ATH/DO/4B quoted by Lord Zuckerman "From Apes to Warlords" p. 352. sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFGrayling2006 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFGrayling2006b (, United Newsreel on the bombing of Dresden, Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force, Aerial bombardment and international law § International law up to 1945, Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands, blocked a demonstration of far-right organizations, Slaughterhouse-Five or The Children's Crusade: A Duty-Dance with Death, Operation Gomorrah campaign against Hamburg. Des unités de service de secours de la région environnante se précipitaient dans la ville détruite pour apporter leur aide. Voir les 6 commentaires critiques › pierre. The Eighth Air Force had already bombed the railway yards near the centre of the city twice in daytime raids: once on 7 October 1944 with 70 tons of high-explosive bombs killing more than 400,[46] then again with 133 bombers on 16 January 1945, dropping 279 tons of high-explosives and 41 tons of incendiaries. Cependant trois ans plus tard, il considérait les puissances occidentales comme seules responsables du bombardement criminel de Dresde qui ne répondait à aucune nécessité militaire. What they were looking for was a big built-up area which they could burn, and that Dresden possessed in full measure. [72] The official historical commission collected 103 detailed eyewitness accounts and let the local bomb disposal services search according to their assertions. Try Prime EN Hello, Sign in Account & Lists Sign in Account & Lists Returns & Orders Try Prime Cart. Amazon.ca - Buy Dresde Apocalypse at a low price; free shipping on qualified orders. Bacchus sur un âne ivre, œuvre de Georg Wrba[48]. Les photos sont de Richard Peter, revenu à Dresde en septembre 1945. D'après Frederick Taylor, le ministère fit gonfler le nombre de morts par un facteur dix[31]. Il est possible aussi que les États-Unis et le Royaume-Uni aient voulu impressionner l'URSS : ce bombardement a eu lieu quelques jours après la clôture de la conférence de Yalta, et il aurait eu une force dissuasive sur Staline, dans le contexte naissant de la guerre froide. La ville de Dresde partagea ainsi le même sort que Berlin et Breslau, qui furent réduites en cendres, mais essentiellement par l’artillerie et les chars soviétiques. In 1990, after the fall of the Berlin Wall, a group of prominent Dresdeners formed an international appeal known as the "Call from Dresden" to request help in rebuilding the Lutheran Frauenkirche, the destruction of which had over the years become a symbol of the bombing. Les états-majors pensèrent que la ville servirait de nœud logistique pour ce transfert[4]. [97] Frederick Taylor states that "there is good reason to believe that later in March copies of—or extracts from—[an official police report] were leaked to the neutral press by Goebbels's Propaganda Ministry ... doctored with an extra zero to make [the total dead from the raid] 202,040". The basket with our twins covered with wet cloths was snatched up out of my mother's hands and we were pushed upstairs by the people behind us. [55] Between 01:21 and 01:45, 529 Lancasters dropped more than 1,800 tons of bombs. Le 75 e anniversaire du bombardement de Dresde devrait nous obliger à comprendre que, malheureusement, comme l’a déclaré l’homme d’État romain Cicéron, « En temps de guerre, la loi se tait. [64] Taylor compares this 40% mix with the raid on Berlin on 3 February, where the ratio was 10% incendiaries. [47] Other raids were carried out that night to confuse German air defences. [75], Of 796 British bombers who participated in the raid, six were lost, three of those hit by bombs dropped by aircraft flying over them. [15][16][17] The city authorities at the time estimated up to 25,000 victims, a figure that subsequent investigations supported, including a 2010 study commissioned by the city council. I do not know how many people I fell over. S'ils conviennent aux historiens, les résultats de la Commission historique sont régulièrement remis en cause sur internet, notamment par les nationalistes. a) en 42 pages, un état des connaissances actuelles sur la recherche et l'enregistrement des personnes décédées durant le bombardement (Matthias Neutzner); The Foreign Secretary has spoken to me on this subject, and I feel the need for more precise concentration upon military objectives such as oil and communications behind the immediate battle-zone, rather than on mere acts of terror and wanton destruction, however impressive. [31] British historian Frederick Taylor mentions a further memo sent to the Chiefs of Staff Committee by Air Marshal Sir Douglas Evill on 1 February, in which Evill states interfering with mass civilian movements was a major, even key, factor in the decision to bomb the city centre. The Allied bombing of Hamburg during World War II included numerous attacks on civilians and civic infrastructure. There were 200,000 incendiaries in all, with the high-explosive bombs ranging in weight from 500 to 4,000 pounds (230 to 1,810 kg)—the so-called two-ton cookies,[52] also known as "blockbusters", because they could destroy an entire large building or street. Le 13 Février à 09h40 quand les Mosquitos commencèrent les plans de repérage à l'aide de fusées éclairantes, il y avait dans la cité environ 500.000 réfugiés. Warning! Le bombardement de Dresde eut lieu du 13 au 15 février 1945, selon les principes de la directive du ministère de l'Aviation du gouvernement britannique sur le bombardement de zone du 14 février 1942, devenue avec l'USAAF la directive de Casablanca (en) en 1943. [39] It said that there were 110 factories and 50,000 workers in the city supporting the German war effort at the time of the raid. 125 relations. Dresde 1945 on Amazon.com.au. "Je sais que la destruction d’une ville aussi grande et splendide à cette étape avancée de la guerre a été jugée inutile même par un grand nombre de personnes qui admettaient que nos attaques précédentes étaient aussi justifiées que toutes les autres opérations de guerre. Berceau du mouvement xénophobe Pegida, Dresde est une ville politiquement très divisée. Freeman Dyson, a British (and later American) physicist who had worked as a young man with RAF Bomber Command from July 1943 to the end of the war,[165] wrote in later years: "For many years I had intended to write a book on the bombing. L’holocauste de Dresde, un crime impuni. First among these are the Nazi government's exaggerated claims immediately afterwards,[15][16][17] which drew upon the beauty of the city, its importance as a cultural icon; the deliberate creation of a firestorm; the number of victims; the extent to which it was a necessary military target; and the fact that it was attacked toward the end of the war, raising the question of whether the bombing was needed to hasten the end. The unease was made worse by an Associated Press story that the Allies had resorted to terror bombing. Comparaison concernant les sept plus grandes villes allemandes, La question récurrente du « crime de guerre » ; les responsabilités, Le bombardement de Dresde dans la culture, « Il me semble que le moment est venu de remettre en question le bombardement des villes allemandes dans le but d'accroître la terreur, tout en invoquant d'autres prétextes… la destruction de Dresde constitue un sérieux doute sur la conduite des bombardements alliés ». Stort udvalg af Bombardement til billige priser. Le bombardement qui ne « pouvait pas avoir lieu ». [147] Wing Commander H. R. Allen said, "The final phase of Bomber Command's operations was far and away the worst. Initially, some of the leadership, especially Robert Ley and Joseph Goebbels, wanted to use it as a pretext for abandonment of the Geneva Conventions on the Western Front. Les Alliés voulaient réduire à néant ce réseau de communication (opération Thunderclap) et ils voulaient aussi saper le moral des Allemands. Lien en allemand : Outre le rapport final de 96 pages, sont aussi disponibles, toujours en allemand : This is a doctrine to which I could never subscribe. Churchill avait trouvé ça moche ! [112][113][114] This was completed on 1 April 1945: ...the moment has come when the question of the so called 'area-bombing' of German cities should be reviewed from the point of view of our own interests. Around 78,000 dwellings had been completely destroyed; 27,700 were uninhabitable, and 64,500 damaged but readily repairable. Longmate describes a 22 September 1941 memorandum prepared by the British Air Ministry's Directorate of Bombing Operations that puts numbers to this analysis (, *The number of bombers and tonnage of bombs are taken from a USAF document written in 1953 and classified secret until 1978 (, harv error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFGrayling2006 (, CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (. Således forløb det i Dresden, et historisk tysk kulturelt centrum, hvor mange tusinde tyske kvinder, børn og flygtninge fra kommunismen havde samlet sig. Cette tension politique éclipse les 25 000 victimes de la « tempête de feu », trois jours de bombardement au phosphore (du 13 au 15 février 1945) sur la Florence allemande, dont il ne restera plus que ruines. After the war, and again after German reunification, great efforts were made to rebuild some of Dresden's former landmarks, such as the Frauenkirche, the Semperoper (the Saxony state opera house) and the Zwinger Palace (the latter two were rebuilt before reunification). [131] As such, "grossly inflated"[5] casualty figures have been promulgated over the years, many based on a figure of over 200,000 deaths quoted in a forged version of the casualty report, Tagesbefehl No. [52], The main bomber force, called Plate Rack, took off shortly after the Pathfinders.