The king left the country and the proclamation of the Republic on 14 April ensued, with the formation of a provisional government. Sublime and sophisticated techno. Another statistically significant factor is the large number of residents of EU origin typically retiring to Spain's Mediterranean coast. Thousands of music fans also travel to Spain each year for internationally recognised summer music festivals Sónar which often features the top up and coming pop and techno acts, and Benicàssim which tends to feature alternative rock and dance acts. [84] In 1812, a constitution for universal representation under a constitutional monarchy was declared, but after the fall of the Bonapartist regime, Ferdinand VII dismissed the Cortes Generales and was determined to rule as an absolute monarch. 24/7 Customer Service. [22], Hispania may derive from the poetic use of the term Hesperia, reflecting the Greek perception of Italy as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" (Hesperia, Ἑσπερία in Greek) and Spain, being still further west, as Hesperia ultima. In the 20th century the most important Spanish sculptors were Julio González, Pablo Gargallo, Eduardo Chillida, and Pablo Serrano. [261] However the Jewish Encyclopedia states the number over 800,000 to be too large and 235,000 as too small: 165,000 is given as expelled as possibly too small in favour or 200,000, and the numbers of converts after the 1391 pogroms as less. YouTube Popular Countries. [86] The Tragic Week events and repression examples the social instability of the time. Rent a holiday accomodation for short and long term stay on Bookabach. Uh oh, the charts cache is corrupted. Premio Planeta de Novela and Miguel de Cervantes Prize are the two main awards nowadays in Spanish literature. Spain has a number of descendants of populations from former colonies, especially Latin America and North Africa. [204] Another 450,000 left in the 17th century. During the Second Punic War, roughly between 210 and 205 BC the expanding Roman Republic captured Carthaginian trading colonies along the Mediterranean coast. [citation needed], Protestant churches have about 1,200,000 members. The Spanish considered the war with the Muslims of Brunei and the Philippines, a repeat of the Reconquista. During the war, in 1810, a revolutionary body, the Cortes of Cádiz, was assembled to co-ordinate the effort against the Bonapartist regime and to prepare a constitution. The group that has become known as the Generation of 1898 was marked by the destruction of Spain's fleet in Cuba by US gunboats in 1898, which provoked a cultural crisis in Spain. Discover 1,534 holiday homes to book online for your Pont d'Espagne, Cauterets holiday. Please delete the charts cache directory and allow it to automatically regenerate. It is some 47,000 km2 (18,000 sq mi) smaller than France and 81,000 km2 (31,000 sq mi) larger than the US state of California. Log In. Then a Spanish town, it was conquered by an Anglo-Dutch force in 1704 during the War of the Spanish Succession on behalf of Archduke Charles, pretender to the Spanish throne. An important provincial city founded by the Romans and with an extensive Roman era infrastructure, Córdoba became the cultural capital, including fine Arabic style architecture, during the time of the Islamic Umayyad dynasty. [133] The autonomous communities were to comprise adjacent provinces with common historical, cultural, and economic traits. Free shipping for many products! Discover 683 studio vacation rentals to book online direct from owner in Pont d'Espagne, Cauterets. [272] Spain's National Day (Fiesta Nacional de España) is celebrated on 12 October, the anniversary of the Discovery of America and commemorate Our Lady of the Pillar feast, patroness of Aragon and throughout Spain. Découvrez chaque semaine le classement des hits. In 2015 Spain was the 8th largest automobile producer country in the world and the 2nd largest car manufacturer in Europe after Germany. The 2 May 1808 revolt was one of many nationalist uprisings across the country against the Bonapartist regime. The population of Spain has risen 2 1/2 times since 1900, when it stood at 18.6 million, principally due to the spectacular demographic boom in the 1960s and early 1970s. In the anarcho-sindicalist trend of the labour movement in Spain, Confederación Nacional del Trabajo was founded in 1910 and Federación Anarquista Ibérica in 1927. The Portuguese writer José Saramago, also awarded with the prize, lived for many years in Spain and spoke both Portuguese and Spanish. Spain is a transcontinental country, having territory in both Europe and Africa. [162] This early global expansion is a competitive advantage over its competitors and European neighbours. Secure payments, 24/7 support and a Book with Confidence guarantee During the Renaissance the major plays are La Celestina and El Lazarillo de Tormes, while many religious literature was created with poets as Luis de León, San Juan de la Cruz, Santa Teresa de Jesús, etc. The immigrants originate mainly in Latin America (39%), North Africa (16%), Eastern Europe (15%), and Sub-Saharan Africa (4%). Although it no longer has official status by law, in all public schools in Spain students have to choose either a religion or ethics class. [citation needed], The arrival of Modernism in the academic arena produced much of the architecture of the 20th century. Florida was colonised by Pedro Menéndez de Avilés when he founded St. Augustine, Florida and then defeated an attempt led by the French Captain Jean Ribault to establish a French foothold in Spanish Florida territory. Spain is a Western country. This territorial organisation, based on devolution, is known in Spain as the "State of Autonomies". Check out our picks for the top 50 albums of 2018 below. A few decades after the Morisco rebellion of Granada known as the War of the Alpujarras, a significant proportion of Spain's formerly-Muslim population was expelled, settling primarily in North Africa. Eventually, Phoenician-Carthaginians expanded inland towards the meseta; however, due to the bellicose inland tribes, the Carthaginians got settled in the coasts of the Iberian Peninsula. Meat production for domestic consumption became the single most important agricultural activity, accounting for 30% of all farm-related production in 1983. The largest groups inhabiting the Iberian Peninsula before the Roman conquest were the Iberians and the Celts. Nonetheless, recent amendments to existing Statutes of Autonomy or the promulgation of new Statutes altogether, have reduced the asymmetry between the powers originally granted to the nationalities and the rest of the regions. Columbus's first voyage crossed the Atlantic and reached the Caribbean Islands, beginning the European exploration and conquest of the Americas, although Columbus remained convinced that he had reached the Orient. [170], By 2016, the automotive industry was generating 8.7 percent of Spain's gross domestic product, employing about nine percent of the manufacturing industry. Basques occupied the western area of the Pyrenees mountain range and adjacent areas, the Phoenician-influenced Tartessians culture flourished in the southwest and the Lusitanians and Vettones occupied areas in the central west. The airport of Barcelona (El Prat) is also important, with 35 million passengers in 2011, being the world's 31st-busiest airport. Within the EU, Spain had the 2nd highest immigration rate in percentage terms after Cyprus, but by a great margin, the highest in absolute numbers, up to 2008. a legislative assembly whose members must be elected by, a government council, with executive and administrative functions headed by a president, elected by the Legislative Assembly and nominated by the. Destinia ti offre l' Hotel D'Espagne a Parigi a partire da 50 €. In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom was conquered by the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate. The basic institutional law of each autonomous community is the Statute of Autonomy. Political corruption and repression weakened the democratic system of the constitutional monarchy of a two-parties system. [242], State education in Spain is free and compulsory from the age of six to sixteen. While varieties of football have been played in Spain as far back as Roman times, sport in Spain has been dominated by football since the early 20th century. There are many festivals and festivities in Spain. Spanish culture is marked by strong historic ties to Catholicism, which played a pivotal role in the country's formation and subsequent identity. Free Delivery and Returns. An influential style centred in Barcelona, known as modernisme, produced a number of important architects, of which Gaudí is one. Municipalities are granted autonomy to manage their internal affairs, and provinces are the territorial divisions designed to carry out the activities of the State.[140]. [citation needed], The Enlightenment in Spain arrived later and was less strong than in other European countries, but during the XIX century liberal ideas arrived in Spanish society. [260], The recent waves of immigration have also led to an increasing number of Hindus, Buddhists, Sikhs and Muslims. Though only about 17% of Spain's cultivated land was irrigated, it was estimated to be the source of between 40 and 45% of the gross value of crop production and of 50% of the value of agricultural exports. [176][177] Spain is also Europe's main producer of wind energy. Owners Direct is now HomeAway. The lion's share of that investment—€4 billion—went to the country's auto industry.[170]. After a period of dictatorship during the governments of Generals Miguel Primo de Rivera and Dámaso Berenguer and Admiral Aznar-Cabañas (1923–1931), the first elections since 1923, largely understood as a plebiscite on Monarchy, took place: the 12 April 1931 municipal elections. That year the Spanish Socialist Workers Party (PSOE) came to power, the first left-wing government in 43 years. There are several major rivers in Spain such as the Tagus (Tajo), Ebro, Guadiana, Douro (Duero), Guadalquivir, Júcar, Segura, Turia and Minho (Miño). Discover 1,148 studios to book online for your Pont d'Espagne, Cauterets holiday. Holiday rentals available for short and long term stay on HomeAway. [90], In 1962, a group of politicians involved in the opposition to Franco's regime inside the country and in exile met in the congress of the European Movement in Munich, where they made a resolution in favour of democracy.[91][92][93]. [36] The arrival from North Africa of the Islamic ruling sects of the Almoravids and the Almohads restored unity upon the Muslim holdings, with a stricter, less tolerant application of Islam, and saw a revival in Muslim fortunes. [citation needed], Artists from Spain have been highly influential in the development of various European and American artistic movements. [21] The word in question (compare modern Hebrew Shafan) actually means "Hyrax", possibly due to Phoenicians confusing the two animals. As a member of NATO since 1982, Spain has established itself as a participant in multilateral international security activities. Ecouter. [citation needed], Judaism was practically non-existent in Spain from the 1492 expulsion until the 19th century, when Jews were again permitted to enter the country. The war claimed the lives of over 500,000 people and caused the flight of up to a half-million citizens from the country. Its territory also includes two archipelagos: the Canary Islands off the coast of North Africa, and the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. By the end of 1826, the only American colonies Spain held were Cuba and Puerto Rico. 1 Ancient Hispania", "A Country Study: Spain. In the period 1880–2000 more than half of the years have been qualified as dry or very dry. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid; other major urban areas include Barcelona, Valencia, Seville, Zaragoza, Málaga, and Bilbao. 147th Article, "Nuevo Estatuto de Autonomía de Canarias", "Unidad de Policía de la Comunidad Autónoma de Andalucía", "Tratado de Utretch – Gibraltar (Spanish)", "Partnership for Progress and Prosperity: Britain and the Overseas Territories. Increased attention to livestock was the reason that Spain became a net importer of grains. Secure payments, 24/7 support and a Book with Confidence guarantee [194] Should the aims of the ambitious AVE programme (Spanish high speed trains) be met, by 2020 Spain will have 7,000 km (4,300 mi) of high-speed trains linking almost all provincial cities to Madrid in less than three hours and Barcelona within four hours. The strong economic growth helped the government to reduce the government debt as a percentage of GDP and Spain's high unemployment rate began to steadily decline. This changed in 1955, during the Cold War period, when it became strategically important for the US to establish a military presence on the Iberian Peninsula as a counter to any possible move by the Soviet Union into the Mediterranean basin. Distinct traditional identities within Spain include the Basques, Catalans, Galicians, Andalusians and Valencians,[216] although to some extent all of the 17 autonomous communities may claim a distinct local identity. It ranked as the 5th top governmental scientific institution worldwide (and 32nd overall) in the 2018 SCImago Institutions Rankings.[195]. It remained neutral during World War I (see Spain in World War I). During the Reconquista, the epic poem Cantar de Mio Cid was written about a real man—his battles, conquests, and daily life. Cancel. [164], In 2005 the Economist Intelligence Unit's quality of life survey placed Spain among the top 10 in the world. Secure online payment. The Society of Jesus was co-founded by Ignatius of Loyola, whose Spiritual Exercises and movement led to the establishment of hundreds of colleges and universities in the world, including 28 in the United States alone. The Berber people of North Africa, who had provided the bulk of the invading armies, clashed with the Arab leadership from the Middle East. While not an official member, Spain has a "Permanent Invitation" to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes it a de facto member of the group.[17]. In these cases, the administrative institutions of the province are replaced by the governmental institutions of the community. New cultural movements based on freedom appeared, like La Movida Madrileña and a culture of human rights arose with Gregorio Peces-Barba. [236], Spain is legally multilingual,[237] and the constitution establishes that the nation will protect "all Spaniards and the peoples of Spain in the exercise of human rights, their cultures and traditions, languages and institutions. The Treaty of Granada guaranteed religious tolerance towards Muslims,[62] for a few years before Islam was outlawed in 1502 in the Kingdom of Castile and 1527 in the Kingdom of Aragon, leading to Spain's Muslim population becoming nominally Christian Moriscos. In 2011 alone, more than half a million people left Spain. [80] These revolts marked the beginning of a devastating war of independence against the Napoleonic regime. They reside primarily on the Mediterranean coast and the Balearic islands, where many choose to live their retirement or telecommute. The ten most populous islands of Spain (2019): Mainland Spain is a mountainous country, dominated by high plateaus and mountain chains. Based upon their testimonies, this eponym would have already been in use in Spain by c. 350 BCE.[24]. Visit top-rated & must-see attractions. Shop must-have dresses, coats, shoes and more. In Catalonia, the Basque Country, Navarre and the Canary Islands, a full-fledged autonomous police corps replaces some of the State police functions (see Mossos d'Esquadra, Ertzaintza, Policía Foral/Foruzaingoa and Policía Canaria). Fossil fuels together generated 58% of Spain's electricity in 2009, just below the OECD mean of 61%. Latest advice for travelling to Spain. Ministers (designated by the Prime Minister). [63] These Visigoths, or Western Goths, after sacking Rome under the leadership of Alaric (410), turned towards the Iberian Peninsula, with Athaulf for their leader, and occupied the northeastern portion. Photograph by Pascal Saez, VWPics, Redux [25][28] Archaeological and genetic evidence suggests that the Iberian Peninsula acted as one of several major refugia from which northern Europe was repopulated following the end of the last ice age. Industrialisation, the development of railways and incipient capitalism developed in several areas of the country, particularly in Barcelona, as well as Labour movement and socialist and anarchist ideas. Athanagild, having risen against King Agila, called in the Byzantines and, in payment for the succour they gave him, ceded to them the maritime places of the southeast (554). This sudden and ongoing inflow of immigrants, particularly those arriving illegally by sea, has caused noticeable social tension.[227]. Top 50 YouTubers. These writers, along with Ramón del Valle-Inclán, Antonio Machado, Ramiro de Maeztu, and Ángel Ganivet, came to be known as the Generation of '98. Archaeological research at Atapuerca indicates the Iberian Peninsula was populated by hominids 1.2 million years ago. Abraham Cresques was a prominent Jewish cartographer. The much more productive regions devoted to irrigated cultivation (regadío) accounted for 3 million hectares in 1986, and the government hoped that this area would eventually double, as it already had doubled since 1950. 24/7 … Isidore was one of the most influential clerics and philosophers in the Middle Ages in Europe, and his theories were also vital to the conversion of the Visigothic Kingdom from an Arian domain to a Catholic one in the Councils of Toledo. With the approval of the new Spanish Constitution of 1978 and the restoration of democracy, the State devolved much authority to the regions and created an internal organisation based on autonomous communities. Emperors Hadrian, Trajan, Theodosius I, and the philosopher Seneca were born in Hispania. The last Muslim state fell in 1492, the same year Columbus reached the Americas. The Society's co-founder, Francis Xavier, was a missionary who reached India and later Japan. We supply cables for construction projects, marine, offshore, OEM's and renewable energy plants. [184] Other renewable energies used in Spain are hydroelectric, biomass and marine (2 power plants under construction). El Desastre (the Disaster), as the war became known in Spain, gave added impetus to the Generation of '98 who were analyzing the country. We use cookies to distinguish you from other users and to provide you with a better experience on our websites. Renting a car in Spain is the best way to experience the country’s incredible panoramas and diverse landscapes: the stunning beaches of Mallorca and Tenerife, Andalusia's rugged mountains, and cosmopolitan cities like Madrid and Barcelona.Whether you’re looking for car rental, Europcar’s trusted fleet will help you get your adventure underway. [269] Typical of the north are the traditional bag pipers or gaiteros, mainly in Asturias and Galicia. The overwhelming majority of Gibraltarians strongly oppose this, along with any proposal of shared sovereignty. Espagne - Volume 17 Issue 199. One of the most famous is San Fermín, in Pamplona. [264], The earliest recorded examples of vernacular Romance-based literature date from the same time and location, the rich mix of Muslim, Jewish, and Christian cultures in Muslim Spain, in which Maimonides, Averroes, and others worked, the kharjas (jarchas). More than half of the irrigated area was planted in corn, fruit trees, and vegetables. In 1469, the crowns of the Christian kingdoms of Castile and Aragon were united by the marriage of Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon. Port of Spain (Spanish: Puerto España), officially the City of Port of Spain (also stylized Port-of-Spain), is the capital city of Trinidad and Tobago and the country's second-largest city after San Fernando and the third largest municipality after Chaguanas and San Fernando. ", "Economy reaps benefits of entry to the 'club' : Spain's euro bonanza", "Spain's economy / Plain sailing no longer", "Spain's population falls as immigrants flee crisis", "Basque separatists Eta announce ceasefire", "Spain's Indignados protest here to stay", "Mariano Rajoy announces €65bn in austerity measures for Spain", "Spain king: Juan Carlos signs his abdication", "El Parlament de Cataluña aprueba la resolución para declarar la independencia", "Catalan crisis: Regional MPs debate Spain takeover bid", "Catalan crisis: Spain PM Rajoy demands direct rule", "Catalonia independence: Rajoy dissolves Catalan parliament", "Catalonia: what direct rule from Madrid could mean", "Spain's Prime Minister, Mariano Rajoy, Is Ousted in No-Confidence Vote", "Coronavirus latest: Britain's Prince Charles tests positive for Covid-19", «Orígenes históricos y ambigüedad de la frontera hispano-lusa (La Raya)», "World Map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification updated – (see p.3)", World Map of Köppen-Geiger Climate Classification, "SPAIN: No Turning Back from Path to Gender Equality", "Swiss Experience With Decentralized Government", "La Constitución española de 1978. From Spain, top dissident vows to fight for free Venezuela. Spain lies between latitudes 27° and 44° N, and longitudes 19° W and 5° E. On the west, Spain is bordered by Portugal; on the south, it is bordered by Gibraltar (a British overseas territory) and Morocco, through its exclaves in North Africa (Ceuta and Melilla, and the peninsula of Vélez de la Gomera). In the same period of time, the number of citizens with Spanish citizenship reached 42,094,606. Secure payments, 24/7 support and a Book with Confidence guarantee There were two big revolts against the new Habsburg monarch and the more authoritarian and imperial-style crown: Revolt of the Comuneros in Castile and Revolt of the Brotherhoods in Majorca and Valencia. [203] A sizeable portion of foreign residents in Spain also comes from other Western and Central European countries. [59][60][61] This was followed by expulsions in 1493 in Aragonese Sicily and Portugal in 1497. Simple design and fast searching speed [Permission] * Read Phone State : When a call is received, it is a necessary privilege to stop the radio. Portugal stance has been the territory being de iure Portuguese territory and de facto Spanish.[151]. Through exploration and conquest or royal marriage alliances and inheritance, the Spanish Empire expanded to include vast areas in the Americas, islands in the Asia-Pacific area, areas of Italy, cities in Northern Africa, as well as parts of what are now France, Germany, Belgium, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands. Autonomous communities are divided into provinces, which served as their territorial building blocks. The War of the Spanish Succession was a wide-ranging international conflict combined with a civil war, and was to cost the kingdom its European possessions and its position as one of the leading powers on the Continent. and FC Barcelona are two of the most successful football clubs in the world. Spain is one of the world's leading countries in the development and production of renewable energy. Isabelline forces prevailed, but the conflict between progressives and moderates ended in a weak early constitutional period. The Kingdom of Castile, formed from Leonese territory, was its successor as strongest kingdom. Spain claims Gibraltar, a 6-square-kilometre (2.3 sq mi) Overseas Territory of the United Kingdom in the southernmost part of the Iberian Peninsula. These conflicts drained it of resources and undermined the economy generally. We have reviews of the best places to see in Barcelona. The Catalans and Aragonese offered themselves to the Byzantine Emperor Andronicus II Palaeologus to fight the Turks. [33][34], Conversion to Islam proceeded at an increasing pace. At the end of the century, socialist and libertarian ideas also flourished, with thinkers such as Francisco Pi y Margall, Ricardo Mella and Francisco Ferrer Guardia. Top 500 YouTube Channels. [214][215] The identity of Spain rather accrues of an overlap of different territorial and ethnolinguistic identities than of a sole Spanish identity. [19] It may be a derivation of the Phoenician I-Shpania, meaning "island of rabbits", "land of rabbits" or "edge", a reference to Spain's location at the end of the Mediterranean; Roman coins struck in the region from the reign of Hadrian show a female figure with a rabbit at her feet,[20] and Strabo called it the "land of the rabbits". Spain needed every hand it could take during the seemingly endless wars of the eighteenth century—the Spanish War of Succession or Queen Anne's War (1702–13), the War of Jenkins' Ear (1739–42) which became the War of the Austrian Succession (1740–48), the Seven Years' War (1756–63) and the Anglo-Spanish War (1779–83)—and its new disciplined militias served around the Atlantic as needed. [99], The proportion of Spain's foreign born population increased rapidly during its economic boom in the early 2000s, but then declined due to the financial crisis. Spain joined the European Union, experiencing a cultural renaissance and steady economic growth until the beginning of the 21st century, that started a new globalised world with economic and ecological challenges. The Romanised cultures of the Iberian Peninsula interacted with Muslim and Jewish cultures in complex ways, giving the region a distinctive culture. Spain is one of the countries with the most laureates of the Nobel Prize in Literature, and including Latin American Nobel laureates, Spanish language literature ranks among the highest in numbers of laureates. [k] Over time, large Moorish populations became established, especially in the Guadalquivir River valley, the coastal plain of Valencia, the Ebro River valley and (towards the end of this period) in the mountainous region of Granada. [250] The health care is public, universal and free for any legal citizen of Spain. [36] Outside the cities, where the vast majority lived, the land ownership system from Roman times remained largely intact as Muslim leaders rarely dispossessed landowners and the introduction of new crops and techniques led to an expansion of agriculture introducing new produces which originally came from Asia or the former territories of the Roman Empire.[37]. The Napoleonic War left Spain economically ruined, deeply divided and politically unstable. As one of the world’s leading universities under 50 years old, it features in the QS Top 50 Under 50. Spain also includes the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea, the Canary Islands in the Atlantic Ocean and a number of uninhabited islands on the Mediterranean side of the Strait of Gibraltar, known as plazas de soberanía ("places of sovereignty", or territories under Spanish sovereignty), such as the Chafarinas Islands and Alhucemas. The regime remained chiefly "neutral" from a nominal standpoint in the Second World War (it briefly switched its position to "non-belligerent"), although it was sympathetic to the Axis and provided the Nazi Wehrmacht with Spanish volunteers in the Eastern Front. By the mid-1990s the economy had commenced the growth that had been disrupted by the global recession of the early 1990s. European Spatial Planning Observation Network, Largest European cities and metropolitan areas, Largest urban areas of the European Union, "Población de las áreas urbanas y metropolitanas",, Articles with dead external links from December 2017, Articles with permanently dead external links, Short description with empty Wikidata description, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, the "Functional Urban Areas" (FUAs) of the Study on Urban Functions of the, calculations by Francisco Ruiz from data of the, This page was last edited on 16 July 2020, at 11:24. Andrés de Urdaneta discovered the tornaviaje or return route from the Philippines to Mexico, making possible the Manila galleon trading route.

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