To the public he kept aloof, and left specific policies, especially unpopular ones, to his ministers; as such he was called a "useless owl" by his contemporaries, among them Bishop Saisset. He married Blanche of Navarre (1331-1398) 11 January 1350 JL. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Jean de Valois (1359-1364) 4. He reigned from 1328 until his death. [28] To cover the deficit, Pope Nicholas IV in 1289 granted Philip permission to collect a tithe of 152,000 LP (livres parisis) from the Church lands in France. Children (7) Marguerite of France. [11] The two were affectionate and devoted to each other and Philip refused to remarry after Joan's death in 1305, despite the great political and financial rewards of doing so. An agreement was indeed reached; it stated that Edward would voluntarily relinquish Gascony to Philip as a sign of submission in his capacity as the duke of Aquitaine. Other motives appear to have included concern over perceived heresy, assertion of French control over a weakened Papacy, and finally, the substitution of royal officials for officers of the Temple in the financial management of French government. "[2][a], Philip relied on skilful civil servants, such as Guillaume de Nogaret and Enguerrand de Marigny, to govern the kingdom rather than on his nobles. Additionally, Edward had by that time become betrothed by proxy to Philip's sister Margaret, and, in the event of the negotiations being successful, Edmund was to escort Margaret back to England for her wedding to Edward. [33], After bringing the Flemish War to a victorious conclusion in 1305, Philip on 8 June 1306 ordered the silver content of new coinage to be raised back to its 1285 level of 3.96 grams of silver per livre. He was the first French king of the house of Valois Valois. [7] However, both Philip and his surviving full brother Charles lived well into adulthood and raised large families of their own. 1268–1314. However, Philip used the pretext that the English king had refused his summons in order to strip Edward of all his possessions in France, thereby initiating hostilities with England.[16]. [citation needed]. In 1314, the daughters-in-law of Philip IV, Margaret of Burgundy (wife of Louis X) and Blanche of Burgundy (wife of Charles IV) were accused of adultery, and their alleged lovers (Phillipe d'Aunay and Gauthier d'Aunay) tortured, flayed and executed in what has come to be known as the Tour de Nesle affair (French: Affaire de la tour de Nesle). He began the long advance of France eastward by taking control of scattered fiefs.[5]. Philip was substantially in debt to the Knights Templar, a monastic military order whose original role as protectors of Christian pilgrims in the Latin Easthad been largely replaced by banking and other commercial activities by the end of the 13th century. [31] By 22 August 1303 this practice led to a two-thirds loss in the value of the livres, sous and deniers in circulation. Philip VI (1293 – 22 August 1350), known as the Fortunate (French: le Fortuné) and of Valois, was the King of France from 1328 to his death. However, pressure from Joan II's family led to Phillip VI surrendering the land to Joan in 1329, and the rulers of Navarre and France were again different individuals. [6] He was the second of four sons born to the couple. Discover the family tree of Philippe VI de VALOIS for free, and learn about their family history and their ancestry. In 1306, Philip expelled the Jews from France, and in 1307 he annihilated the order of the Knights Templar. The fact that, in little more than a month, Pope Clement V died in torment of a loathsome disease thought to be lupus, and that in eight months Philip IV of France, at the early age of forty-six, perished by an accident while hunting, necessarily gave rise to the legend that de Molay had cited them before the tribunal of God. The war with the Flemish resulted in Philip's ultimate victory with which he received a significant portion of Flemish cities, which were added to the crown lands along with a vast sum of money. Philippe VI de Valois (1294 † 1350), King of France from 1328 to 1350, son of Charles de Valois and Marguerite de Sicile. Philippe VI was the first Valois monarch of France. At daybreak on Friday, 13 October 1307, hundreds of Templars in France were simultaneously arrested by agents of Philip the Fair, to be later tortured into admitting heresy in the Order. ... Charles de Valois Comte de Valois. In 1340, however, France suffered a grave defeat in the naval Battle of Sluys. No need to register, buy now! 1273–1305. In 1661, Philippe also received the dukedoms of Valois and Chartres. Six days later, he married again; Philip's step-mother was Marie, daughter of the duke of Brabant. A few months later, one of Philip's younger brothers, Robert, also died. For the King of Castile similarly called Philip the Fair, see, King of France (1268-1314) (ruled 1285–1314). your own Pins on Pinterest [26] Some 30% of the revenues were collected from the royal demesne. The outbreak of hostilities with England in 1294 was the inevitable result of the competitive expansionist monarchies, triggered by a secret Franco-Scottish pact of mutual assistance against Edward I; inconclusive campaigns for the control of Gascony, southwest of France were fought 1294–1298 and 1300–1303. [35] This led to rioting in Paris on 30 December 1306, forcing Philip to briefly seek refuge in the Paris Temple, the headquarters of the Knights Templar. In the 2017 television series Knightfall, Philip is portrayed by Ed Stoppard. In 1301, Philip had the bishop of Pamier arrested for treason. He was styled Duke of Valois at the time of his birth. [33] New taxes were levied to pay for the deficit. Nov 9, 2014 - Philip VI (French: Philippe VI) (1293 – 22 August 1350), called the Fortunate (French: le Fortuné) and of Valois, was the first King of France from the House of Valois. PHILIPPE VI DE VALOIS king of France, succeeded when Marie de Luxembroug, widow of Charles IV (#606182) Framed Prints, Posters, Canvas, Puzzles, Metal, Photo Gifts and Wall Art PHILIPPE VI DE VALOIS king of France, succeeded when Marie de Luxembroug, widow of Charles IV, bore a daughter : Edward III disputed his claim, leading to 100 YearsWar #MaryEvansPrintsOnline That same day, by sunset, a stake was erected on a small island in the Seine, the Ile des Juifs, near the palace garden. 20–1.—Raynouard,pp. Even in distant Germany, Philip's death was spoken of as a retribution for his destruction of the Templars, and Clement was described as shedding tears of remorse on his death-bed for three great crimes: the poisoning of Henry VII, Holy Roman Emperor, and the ruin of the Templars and Beguines. By using this website you consent to our use of cookies. 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A serious crisis resulted in 1343 and forced Philip to summon to Paris the estates of the kingdom, which took some measures to appease public opinion and to relieve the burdens of administration. The Kingdom of Navarre in the Pyrenees was poor but had a degree of strategic importance. Chronicle / Alamy Stock Photo . [40] The pope escaped but died soon afterward. When the news was carried to Philippe he was furious. [26] In 1291 the budget swung back into surplus only to fall into deficit again in 1292. The spread of the Black Death in 1348 and 1349, however, overshadowed all political questions. Learn more Close In May 1276, Philip's elder brother Louis died, and the eight year old Philip became heir apparent. It was pure and holy; the charges were fictitious and the confessions false. [4] His ambitions made him highly influential in European affairs. Philip and his advisors were instrumental in the transformation of France from a feudal country to a centralized state. Monsieur Philippe I, Duke of Orléans (21 September 1640 – 9 June 1701) was the younger son of Louis XIII of France and his wife, Anne of Austria.His older brother was the "Sun King", Louis XIV.Styled Duke of Anjou from birth, Philippe became Duke of Orléans upon the death of his uncle Gaston in 1660. [30], In 1294, France went to war against England and in 1297, Flanders declared its independence from France. Edward kept up his part of the deal and turned over his continental estates to the French. The first Valois king, his reign was dominated by the Hundred Years' War. [10], Philip married Queen Joan I of Navarre (1271–1305) on 16 August 1284. Find the perfect philip de valois stock photo. No need to register, buy now! It's all about family. He was a short lived nephew of Louis XIV. The bourgeoisie, profiting from the king’s power, proved grateful and loyal; among the clergy and nobility, however, a movement for reform of finances took root. 1 Comte de Poitiers . [13] When in 1328 the Capetian line went extinct, the new Valois king, Philip VI, attempted to permanently annex the lands to France, compensating the lawful claimant, Joan II of Navarre, senior heir of Philip IV, with lands elsewhere in France. On the 29 May 1328, King Philippe VI of France, once simply Count de Valois, was crowned at Reims Cathedral. [26] By 1295, Philip had replaced the Templars with the Florentine Franzesi bankers as his main source of finance. Philip's reign was dominated by the consequences of a succession dispute. When Philip died, he left France divided by war and plague, although by purchase he had made some important additions to the territory of the kingdom. One reason for these rumours was the fact that the queen had given birth to her own first son the month Louis died. 5.1 Liens externes . He tried and failed to make another relative the Holy Roman Emperor. Philippe de Valois, king of France from 1328 to 1350 under the name of Philippe VI, born in 1293 and died on August 22, 1350 in Nogent-le-Roin 1 comes from the younger branch of the Capetian family, known as the house of Valois, founded by his father Charles de Valois, younger brother of Philippe IV … The scheme did not work well. [30] The royal treasure was transferred from the Paris Temple to the Louvre around this time. Philippe Vi De Valois -Image ID: AY5JA3 . Genealogy for Philippe de Valois (c.1524 - c.1525) family tree on Geni, with over 200 million profiles of ancestors and living relatives. [39] This precursor to the Estates General appeared for the first time during his reign, a measure of the professionalism and order that his ministers were introducing into government. The Jews were regarded as comparatively honest, while the king's collectors were universally unpopular. Philippe de France (né le 1er juillet 1336 à Vincennes - mort le 1er septembre 1375 à Vincennes), duc d'Orléans, de Touraine et comte de Valois, fils de Philippe VI de Valois, roi de France, et de Jeanne de Bourgogne. Enlarge. [38] Philip retaliated by forbidding the removal of bullion from France. Download this stock image: France-History- ´Philippe de Valois tenant sa cour plénière´ : Philip VI 1293 – 22 August 1350, known as the Fortunate French: - DF2972 from Alamy's library of millions of high resolution stock photos, illustrations and vectors. The scholastic part of Philip's education was entrusted to Guillaume d'Ercuis, his father's almoner. European nations attempted another Crusade but were delayed, and it never took place. He was in debt to both groups and saw them as a "state within the state". His goal was to place his relatives on foreign thrones. In 1322, the Jews were expelled again by the King's successor, who did not honour his commitment. 5 Voir aussi . 213–4, 233–5.—Wilcke, II. He was portrayed by Georges Marchal in the 1972 French miniseries adaptation of the series, and by Tchéky Karyo in the 2005 adaptation.[51][52]. The elder son of Charles of Valois, Philip was first cousin to the brothers Louis X, Philip V, and Charles IV, the last Capetian kings of the direct line. To raise taxes for war, he was obliged to make concessions to the nobility, the clergy, and the bourgeoisie; hence his reign witnessed the important development of the political power of the estates. [33], The defeat at the battle of Golden Spurs in 1302 was a crushing blow to French finance, reducing the value of the French currency by 37% in the 15 months that followed. The canons pronounced that a relapsed heretic was to be burned without a hearing; the facts were notorious and no formal judgment by the papal commission need be waited for. On the death of Charles IV in 1328, Philip, in the face of opposition from the partisans of the claim of Edward III of England, assumed the regency until the end of the pregnancy of Charles IV’s widow. To further strengthen the monarchy, Philip tried to take control of the French clergy, leading to a violent conflict with Pope Boniface VIII. Philippe de Valois, roi de France de 1328 à 1350 sous le nom de Philippe VI, né en 1293 et mort le 22 août 1350 à Nogent-le-Roin 1 est issu de la branche cadette de la famille capétienne, dite maison de Valois, fondée par son père Charles de Valois, frère cadet de Philippe IV le Bel. Omissions? 3 by Henry Charles Lea, Chptr. 1286–1294. Philippe IV le Bel est le second fils de Philippe III le Hardi, après Louis (1264 – 1276). Updates? His final year saw a scandal amongst the royal family, known as the Tour de Nesle affair, in which Philip's three daughters-in-law were accused of adultery. What was at stake in the Templars' trial, then, was the establishment of a "royal theocracy".[43]. He was succeeded by his son Louis X. After the outbreak of a revolt in Flanders in August of that year, the count of Flanders appealed to Philip, whose knights butchered thousands of rebellious Flemings at the Battle of Cassel. Such stories were rife among the people, whose sense of justice had been scandalized by the whole affair. France’s devastating defeat by the English at Crécy (1346) gave rise to another crisis. 1270–1325. Il est aussi roi de Navarre sous le nom de Philippe II. But Edward, Edmund and the English had been deceived. On 4 April 1312, another Crusade was promulgated at the Council of Vienne. Philippe was born in 1293. [28] By November 1286 it reached 8 tonnes of silver to his primary financiers, the Templars, equivalent to 17% of government revenue. [26] The Lombards' assets were seized by government agents and the crown extracted 250,000 LT by forcing the Lombards to purchase French nationality. [26], The constant deficits led Philip to order the arrest of the Lombard merchants, who had earlier made him extensive loans on the pledge of repayment from future taxation. Philip had various contacts with the Mongol power in the Middle East, including reception at the embassy of the Uyghur monk Rabban Bar Sauma, originally from the Yuan dynasty of China. , royal house of France that ruled from 1328 to 1589. [9] Joseph Strayer points out that such a deal was probably unnecessary, as Peter had little to gain from provoking a battle with the withdrawing French or angering the young Philip, who had friendly relations with Aragon through his mother. [39] Boniface called French bishops to Rome to discuss Philip's actions. His palace located on the Île de la Cité is represented today by surviving sections of the Conciergerie. Name suffix KING of FRANCE. Their deaths without surviving sons of their own would compromise the future of the French royal house, which until then seemed secure, precipitating a succession crisis that would eventually lead to the Hundred Years' War (1337–1453). [29] This debt was quickly paid off and in 1287 and 1288, Philip's kingdom ran a budget surplus. [30] It was accompanied by dramatic inflation that damaged the real incomes of the creditors such as the aristocracy and the Church, who received a weaker currency in return for the loans they had issued in a stronger currency. Pope Clement did attempt to hold proper trials, but Philip used the previously forced confessions to have many Templars burned at the stake before they could mount a proper defense. The Temple case was the last step of a process of appropriating these foundations, which had begun with the Franco-papal rift at the time of Boniface VIII. Sommaire. [33] The king obtained another crusade tithe from the pope and returned the royal treasure to the Temple to gain the Templars as his creditors again. Philip addressed Edward as a duke, a vassal and nothing more, despite the international implications of the relationship between England and France, and not an internal matter involving Philip's French vassals. He relied, more than any of his predecessors, on a professional bureaucracy of legalists. [13] The annexation of wealthy Champagne increased the royal revenues considerably, removed the autonomy of a large semi-independent fief and expanded royal territory eastward. Considering the offences, which the culprits had confessed and confirmed, the penance imposed was in accordance with rule — that of perpetual imprisonment. As the popularity of the Crusades had decreased, support for the military orders had waned, and Philip used a disgruntled complaint against the Knights Templar as an excuse to move against the entire organization as it existed in France, in part to free him… [21] There was further correspondence between Arghun and Philip in 1288 and 1289,[22] outlining potential military cooperation. 236, 240.—Anton, Versuch, p. 142, "An Historical Sketch of Sacerdotal Celibacy," "Superstition and Force,", "Studies in Church History"; A History of the Inquisition of the Middle Ages, Vol III, by Henry Charles Lea, NY: Hamper & Bros, Franklin Sq. Duque de Orleáns, Anjou (1640-1661), Chartres, Valois, Nemours y de Montpensier, príncipe de Joinville. Philippe Charles d'Orléans, petit-fils de France, Duke of Valois (16 July 1664 – 8 December 1666) was a French prince and Grandson of France. A short consultation with his council only was required. [26] Despite this draconian measure, the deficits continued to stack up in 1293. Dante Alighieri often refers to Philip in La Divina Commedia, never by name but as the "mal di Francia" (plague of France). The most notable conflicts of Philip's reign include a dispute with the English over King Edward I's fiefs in southwestern France, and a war with the Flemish, who had rebelled against French royal authority and humiliated Philip at the Battle of the Golden Spurs in 1302. Fils de France, duc d'Anjou (1640-1661), de Chartres, de Valois, de Nemours et de Montpensier, prince de Joinville. [12] The primary administrative benefit of the marriage was Joan's inheritance of Champagne and Brie, which were adjacent to the royal demesne in Ile-de-France, and thus effectively were united to the king's own lands, expanding his realm. 1888 p.324, A History of the Inquisition Vol. [30] The indebted lower classes did not benefit from the devaluation, as the high inflation ate into the purchasing power of their money. [15] His reign marks the transition in France from a charismatic monarchy – which could all but collapse in an incompetent reign – to a more bureaucratic kingdom, a move, under a certain historical reading, towards modernity. Charles V de Valois (1338-1380) 4. [47] Within 14 years the throne passed rapidly through Philip's sons, who died relatively young, and without producing male heirs. Hastily the cardinals delivered them to the Prevot of Paris, and retired to deliberate on this unexpected contingency, but they were saved all trouble. Philip VI, byname Philip Of Valois, French Philippe De Valois, (born 1293—died Aug. 22, 1350, near Paris), first French king of the Valois dynasty. Pursuant to the terms of the Treaty of Paris in 1303, the marriage of Philip's daughter Isabella to the Prince of Wales, Edward I's heir, was celebrated at Boulogne, 25 January 1308[why?] Huge collection, amazing choice, 100+ million high quality, affordable RF and RM images. This conflict resulted in the transfer of the papal court to the enclave of Avignon in 1309. [29] The war against Aragon, inherited from Philip's father, required the expenditure of 1.5 million LT (livres tournois) and the 1294–99 war against England over Gascony another 1.73 million LT.[29][28] Loans from the Aragonese War were still being paid back in 1306. 2 Règne . Philippe Vi De Valois. Philip reacted with energy to the humiliation and the Battle of Mons-en-Pévèle followed two years later, which ended in a decisive French victory. Philip IV's rule signaled the decline of the papacy's power from its near complete authority. Jeunesse Naissance et famille. The French had no intention of returning the land to the English monarch. It was suspected that Louis had been poisoned, and that his stepmother, Marie of Brabant, had instigated the murder. Français : Philippe de France, duc d'Orléans (September 21, 1640 – June 8, 1701), dit Monsieur, est le frère de Louis XIV. Reigning at the outbreak of the Hundred Years’ War (1337–1453), he had no means of imposing on his country the measures necessary for the maintenance of his monarchical power, though he continued the efforts of the 13th-century Capetians toward the centralization of the administration in Paris. His father was the heir apparent of France at that time, being the eldest son of King Louis IX (better known as St. Louis). [30] The Italians could raise huge loans far beyond the capacities of the Templars, and Philip came to rely on them more and more. Philip was substantially in debt to the Knights Templar, a monastic military order whose original role as protectors of Christian pilgrims in the Latin East had been largely replaced by banking and other commercial activities by the end of the 13th century. Philippe de Valois synonyms, Philippe de Valois pronunciation, Philippe de Valois translation, English dictionary definition of Philippe de Valois. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). 326, Political Heresy – The State, p. 2. To conciliate opponents, the government was obliged to entrust finances to three abbots. He sent his brother Edmund Crouchback, who was Philip's cousin as well as his step-father-in-law, in attempts to negotiate with the French royal family and avert war. Jean II de Valois (1319-1364) 3. [41] As the popularity of the Crusades had decreased, support for the military orders had waned, and Philip used a disgruntled complaint against the Knights Templar as an excuse to move against the entire organization as it existed in France, in part to free himself from his debts., Philip VI - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). In April 1305, the new Mongol ruler Öljaitü sent letters to Philip,[23] the Pope, and Edward I of England. [39] Boniface retaliated with the celebrated bull Unam Sanctam (1302), a declaration of papal supremacy. Philip seemingly responded positively to the request of the embassy, by sending one of his noblemen, Gobert de Helleville, to accompany Bar Sauma back to Mongol lands. [38] By 1297, Boniface agreed to Philip's taxation of the clergy in emergencies.[38]. [33][34] As people attempted to move their wealth out of the country in non-monetary form, Philip banned merchandise exports without royal approval. [33] The royal government had to order officials and subjects to provide all or half, respectively, of their silver vessels for minting into coins. He again offered a military collaboration between the Christian nations of Europe and the Mongols against the Mamluks. Philippe VI inherited the throne on the death of his father, Charles IV. About FamilySearch. The affair was supposed to be concluded when, to the dismay of the prelates and wonderment of the assembled crowd, de Molay and Geoffroi de Charney arose. Navarre remained in personal union with France, beginning in 1284 under Philip and Joan, for 44 years. He was the husband of Joan I of Navarre, by virtue of which he was King of Navarre (as Philip I) … Philippe IV The Fair Of. [37], When Philip levied taxes on the French clergy of one half their annual income, he caused an uproar within the Catholic Church and the papacy, prompting Pope Boniface VIII to issue the bull Clericis Laicos (1296), forbidding the transference of any church property to the French Crown. [42] Recent studies emphasize the political and religious motivations of Philip the Fair and his ministers (especially Guillaume de Nogaret). Philip VI de Valois (1293-1350) 2. [30] Currency depreciation provided the crown with 1.419 million LP from November 1296 to Christmas 1299, more than enough to cover war costs of 1.066 million LP in the same period. [30] The result was social unrest. He married Joan I of Navarre (1271-1305) 16 August 1284 JL . The nearest male relative to the last Capetian monarch, Charles IV of France known as the Fair (le Bel), Philippe inherited the throne because of the direct male line of the House of Capet came to an end in 1328. Under Philip IV, the annual ordinary revenues of the French royal government totaled approximately 860,000 livres tournois, equivalent to 46 tonnes of silver. 4 Notes et références . Find the perfect philippe vi de valois king france stock photo. Il a deux frères cadets, Robert (1269 – av. [40] The French archbishop Bertrand de Goth was elected pope as Clement V and thus began the so-called Babylonian Captivity of the papacy (1309–76), during which the official seat of the papacy moved to Avignon, an enclave surrounded by French territories, and was subjected to French control. Princes from his house ruled in Naples and Hungary. Only five months later, in January 1271, Philip's mother died after falling from a horse; she was pregnant with her fifth child at the time and had not yet been crowned queen beside her husband. Henrietta of England. Philip's father was finally crowned king at Rheims on 15 August 1271. Although Philip was known as handsome, hence the epithet le Bel, his rigid and inflexible personality gained him (from friend and foe alike) other nicknames, such as the Iron King (French: le Roi de fer). In March 1314, Philip had Jacques de Molay, the last Grand Master of the Temple, and Geoffroi de Charney, Preceptor of Normandy, burned at the stake. [39] In response, Philip convoked an assembly of bishops, nobles and grand bourgeois of Paris in order to condemn the Pope. He was, however, warned against leaving by Enguerrand de Marigny[24] and died soon after in a hunting accident. Huge collection, amazing choice, 100+ million high quality, affordable RF and RM images. [25] Overall revenues were about twice the ordinary revenues. [3] The king, who sought an uncontested monarchy, compelled his vassals by wars and restricted feudal usages. A member of the House of Capet, Philip was born in the medieval fortress of Fontainebleau (Seine-et-Marne) to the future Philip III, the Bold, and his first wife, Isabella of Aragon. Following the Fall of Acre in 1291, however, the former allies started to show dissent.[16]. Discover (and save!) Philippe's father was Comte Charles III de Valois III and his mother was Marguerite de Anjou.His paternal grandparents were Roi Philippe III, "le Hardi" de Valois (de France) III and Isabelle de Aragon; his maternal grandparents were Charles II de Anjou and Marie of Hungary.He had a sister named Jeanne.He had a half-brother and a half-sister, named Antoine and Isabelle. His three sons were successively kings of France: Louis X, Philip V, and Charles IV. At the death of Charles IV, the last of the direct Capetians, the Valois dynasty came to the throne in the person of Philip VI, son of Charles of Valois and grandson of Philip III. He is a statue.

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